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EARLY LIFE OF JESUS 

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NEW LIGHT ON PASSION WEEK 



The Early Life of Jesus 

AND 

New Light on Passion Week 



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By ^% OefC<IL %l\ 



P. SPENCER WHITMAN, D. D. 

TOCCOA, GEORGIA 

Edited by 

ALONZO ABERNETHY, Ph. D. 

JOHN A. EARL, D. D. 

DES MOINES, IOWA 



PHILADELPHIA 

THE GRIFFITH & ROWLAND PRESS 

19 14 



Copyright 1914 
ALONZO ABERNETHY 

Published February, 1914 



INTRODUCTORY 



The author of this volume, Rev. P. Spencer Whitman, D. D., was 
a man of rare gifts and noble qttalities, who early dedicated his 
life to the service of humanity. Born April 27, 18 15, in the little 
village of Fairfield, Vermont, under the shadow of the Green 
Mountain ranges extending northward to the east of Lake Cham- 
plain, he lived and continued his literary activities to the advanced 
age of eighty-five years. 

He was too frail in early life to attend school; and an accident 
at twelve, whereby he was crippled for the rest of his early boy- 
hood, was prophetic of a large part of his life, since the health of 
both himself and Mrs. Whitman by turn was so infirm that he 
once said to the writer in a fervor of disappointment, " It seems 
to me that we spent the whole of our fifty-five years together in 
taking care of each other." 

At the age of fourteen, though still on crutches, he first entered 
school at the Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution, 
now Colgate University, N. Y., where an older brother was 
teaching. His college education was received principally at Brown 
University during three years from 1836; and when compelled 
by failing health to leave, he later graduated from Mercer 
University, Georgia, with its first class in 1841. In December of 
that year he married Miss Caroline Crawford Crane, at her home 
in Wilkes County, Georgia, and engaged in teaching and preach- 
ing by turns, now in the South, and again in the North, as health 
and circumstances determined, until in 1874 they found it neces- 
sary to locate finally in Toccoa, Georgia, at the foot of the Blue 
Ridge Mountains. Here they built a commodious home in a 
sheltered grove beside a beautiful rivulet, and there they resided 
during the remainder of their lives. Doctor Whitman was a 
nineteenth-century Barnabas, a good man and full of the Holy 
Spirit and of faith. He lived a simple life of earnest faith, ever 
extending the helping hand, as many will yet remember, both in 
their early home at Belvidere, Illinois, and in their several pleasant 
homes in Iowa. 

Though giving comparatively little attention to business affairs, 
Doctor Whitman accumulated by frugality considerable property. 



INTRODUCTORY 



and gave most of it away during his lifetime to worthy persons and 
worthy purposes, making provision for dedicating the remainder 
to the cause of Christian education, and reserving only sufficient 
to secure the publication and distribution of such part of his 
later writings as might be found suitable, including the present 
work, under the direction of his executor, the editor of this 
volume. His sympathies were as broad as humanity and as noble 
as Christianity. 

He was a man of tireless energy. It was his habit to work 
incessantly. Whatever he undertook he went at with the vigor 
of a giant until his strength was exhausted. He was a teacher, 
preacher, and business manager combined till near the age of 
sixty-five, when his declining strength limited his energies chiefly 
to study and writing. 

An original thinker of marked character, and always a close 
and critical student of the Bible, his opinions were formed from 
careful study of the text itself, and he had little respect for all 
loose and shallow methods of biblical exposition. His " Scripture 
Worthies Viewed in a New Light," published by the Fleming H. 
Revell Company, in 1899, is a vigorous protest against false 
methods of exposition. The original name which he gave to the 
little book, " Defense of Scripture Worthies Against the Attacks 
of Christian Expositors," expresses more clearly the real character 
of the work, and shows the purpose of much of his writing. He 
left considerable manuscript, some of it nearly ready for publi- 
cation, and to this kind of work his last years were devoted. He 
was a constant reader of the religious papers, especially of the 
South, where he lived, and was an accredited correspondent for 
a number of them. His death occurred at Elberton, Georgia, May 
22, 1900, Mrs. Whitman's decease preceding that of her husband 
by three years, neither having lost sight of an abiding purpose to 
be useful and to do good. By their unselfish and noble lives, and 
especially by their religious writings, it can be truly said of both 
that their works do follow them. 

The present volume is rather the result of growth than of an 
original purpose. The book is a protest against superficial exposi- 
tions of Scripture, especially such as tend to question the accuracy 
of Gospel records. 

Part First is an interesting and original study of the early life 
of our Lord, with an interpretation of questions connected with 
his baptism. 



INTRODUCTORY 



Part Second deals with the incidents connected with Passion 
week, wherein the author seeks to show that many standard har- 
monies of the Gospels are themselves inharmonious, while their 
authors' efforts to harmonize the several Gospel accounts are 
based too much on tradition and theory, and tend unnecessarily 
to discredit the accuracy of Scripture. The single purpose of this 
part of the jvork was to discover a plan of harmonizing the 
accounts of Passion >veek without discrediting any of the Gospels. 
It may surprise some readers to find that the record of incidents 
and teaching, beginning with the approach to Jerusalem on 
Friday before the crucifixion and ending on resurrection morning 
comprises very nearly one-third of the four Gospels, to wit: one 
thousand, two hundred and thirty verses out of less than three 
thousand and eight hundred. 

The notes following the several chapters, where not otherwise 
indicated, were prepared by the editor. The preparation of Part 
Third was undertaken at the suggestion of the editor, for the 
purpose of testing the accuracy of the conclusions reached, and 
carried out in part during a winter month's visit in the sunny 
home of Doctor Whitman at Toccoa, Georgia, a little while before 
his death. The study has proved as interesting and fascinating to 
the editor, as the earlier study and discovery had evidently been 
to the author. 

These meditations, then, upon the most sacred and precious 
portions of the recorded life of our divine Lord, after a lifelong 
communing with God and his revelation, are sent abroad in the 
hope that they may find open minds among like devout and 
consecrated souls, and make some contribution, at least, to the 
marvelous riches revealing themselves ever anew in the wonderful 
word of God. 

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE 

In the final preparation of the manuscript for the press, Pres. 
John A. Earl, of Des Moines College, has rendered valuable assist- 
ance in many ways, and at my urgent request he has consented to 
the use of his name as associate editor of the book. 

Alonzo Abernethy. 

Des Moines, Iowa, January lo, 1913. 



Part First 



The Early Life of Jesus 



CONTENTS 

Chapter Page 

I. The Date of the Birth of Jesus 3 

11. The Journey for Enrolment and Return to Galilee 8 

III. The Arrival of the Magi 12 

IV. The Mission of the Magi; The Flight into Egypt 

AND Return 15 

V. The Early Years 18 

VI. No Reference Made by John the Baptist to Events 

IN THE Childhood of Jesus 23 

VII. Jesus of Nazareth Revealed as the Messiah 26 

VIII. Jesus and His Acquaintances Up to the Time he 
WAS Designated by John to the People as the Son 

OF God 30 

IX. The Baptism of Jesus: Its Real Significance 37 



CHAPTER I 

THE DATE OF THE BIRTH OF JESUS 

Our Christmas 

For many centuries, beginning probably not later than the sixth, 
Christmas has been celebrated throughout Christendom as the 
anniversary of the birth of Jesus. Christian families and organi- 
zations the world over unite and lead in these exercises. In more 
recent times, well-nigh universal Sunday-school festivities are 
planned for the entertainment of children, incidentally at least, 
associating Christmas Day with the birth of Jesus. 

Another suggestive phenomenon of our day is the many "Lives 
of Jesus " issuing from the press, and entering our libraries and 
our homes, indicating constant increase of interest in this marvel- 
ous story, the life of our Lord. 

An examination of some recent histories discloses the fact that, 
while a few writers tacitly assume that Jesus' birth was in the 
winter, the larger number maintain that the month and day are 
wholly unknown. 

Was Jesus Born in December? 

Will an examination of the records, brief as they are, confirm 
the view that Jesus was born in the winter? 

The birth of Jesus is mentioned in connection with three other 
events, namely, the return of Mary from her visit to Elizabeth, 
the enrolment at Bethlehem, and the visit of the shepherds. In 
considering the probabilities, each one of these events may aid 
us in our conclusions. 

The decree for enrolment required the whole people, so to 
speak, to absent themselves from their homes, and for the most 
part to make what at that time must have been considered long 
journeys. It is reasonable to suppose that a time favorable 
for complying with such a requirement would have been set, 
not only in respect to the state of the >veather and the roads, 
but also to the matter of being away from one's home and 
business. 

One season of the year that clearly complies with these condi- 
tions is just after the laying aside of the planted crops, and just 

a 



THE EARLY LIFE OF JESUS 



before the beginning of the reaping harvest, when there would be 
a lull in agricultural toil. During this interval, the people could 
leave home without neglect of or injury to their crops, and 
without any physical suffering. It would be the time to travel in 
comfort, and this would be soon after the Passover, extending 
perhaps into May. 

Under the supposition that this was the time selected, it would 
have been in July or early August of the preceding summer, the 
special season of fruits and leisure, that Mary, after the interview 
with the angel, arose and went into the hill country of Judea with 
haste. Then, her three months' stay with Elizabeth completed, it 
would be October or early November in the season following the 
autumnal rains, known as the season for seeding, that her journey 
back to Nazareth would be made. And then the ensuing April or 
May, when the world ;^as greenest, in the height of the shepherd 
season, the planted crops laid aside, the fields of wheat growing 
white for the harvest, it would be then that the expectant mother 
would set out with Joseph for their ancestral city. 

She had but recently spent three months at the home of 
Zacharias, a man who was especially conversant with what God 
was doing in the fulfilment of Messianic prediction ; and must have 
been as jvell-informed as to where the Messiah would be born, as 
were the priests and scribes who later did not hesitate to say 
(Matt. 2 : 5), "In Bethlehem of Judea." 

When, therefore, that decree for enrolment was announced, it 
.was the occasion of no disturbance to Mary, but of a pleasure 
rather, as she saw in it the furtherance of the divine plan for her 
to be in Bethlehem. Accordingly, when the time came for Joseph 
to make the journey, he was not to go alone. 

In the next place we have the positive statement that shepherds 
in the same country were abiding in the field, and keeping watch 
by night over their flocks when Jesus was born. Shepherds were 
not employed in this way at the approach of midwinter. It must 
have been at a time when green pastures invited the flocks abroad. 
Nothing is surer than that shepherds abiding in the fields, in the 
pastures, watching their flocks by night, is simply a state of 
things not known in Palestine in winter. And as this was the 
state of things at the time of the nativity, we may well believe 
that Mary did not make that journey in winter, nor was she 
suffering the discomfort of a fireless stall in chill winter when 
her child was bom. 



DATE OF THE BIRTH 



Jesus Born in the Spring 

Under such conditions the journey to Bethlehem would be 
made when all nature was pervaded with inspiring bloom and 
freshness, cheering the heart and gladdening the eyes of Mary on 
that sacred journey to the cheery abode, though ever so humble, 
where she found the seclusion desired during her eventful stay 
at Bethlehem. The stall, or cave, may well have seemed more 
comfortable and congenial than any room in that thronged inn. 
The hands of Joseph may have made it clean and inviting. Her 
own hands may have joined with his in making that temporary 
abode fragrant with the choice flowers of the season. And when 
the shepherds came, the scene which met their eyes may have 
been only in harmony with the fairer side of pastoral life, and in 
every way befitting the condition of the virgin mother. 

Notes on the Date of the Birth of Jesus 

(Prepared by the Editors) 

The question of the date of the birth of Christ cannot be 
here discussed. A large collection of authorities on the subject 
may be found in Jarvis' " Introduction to the History of the 
Church." The most commonly accepted date is 4 B. C, some 
scholars placing it a year or two earlier, others a little later. The 
present era was fixed by Dionysius Exiguus in the sixth century, 
and first used in history by Bede early in the eighth, and soon 
after introduced into public transactions by Pepin and Charle- 
magne. 

" Discussions have been almost endless also in regard to the 
time of the year of our Lord's birth; and the subject must be 
passed with the same general reference. Meantime there seems 
no sufficient reason for giving up the date, December 25, so long 
and so generally observed, and which agrees well with such 
indications as >ve have of the time, even though it be now impos- 
sible to decide positively upon its accuracy on other than traditional 
grounds. . . It was introduced into the East from the West about 
A. D. 376, and its observance spread rapidly and widely. Some 
evidence in its favor may be found collected in Selden's very 
learned work, *A Tract Proving the Nativity of Our Saviour to 
be on the Twenty-fifth of December.' " ^ 

"We accept, then, as probable conclusions, that the Lord was 

1 Gardiner, " Harmony of the Gospels," pp. 9, 10. 



THE EARLY LIFE OF JESUS 



born December, 749 (5 B. C.) ; baptized January, 780; crucified 
April 7, 783; length of ministry, three years and three months. 
That the twenty-fifth of December and sixth of January were the 
days of the nativity and baptism rests wholly on tradition." ^ 

"Mr, Greswell has made it highly probable (* Diss./ X, Vol. I) 
that our Lord was born on the evening of (i. e., which began) the 
fifth of April, the tenth of the Jewish Nisan; on which same day 
of April, and the fourteenth of Nisan, he suffered thirty-three 
years after. Before this time there would be abundance of grass 
in the pastures — the spring rains being over; but much after it, 
and till after the autumnal equinox again, the pastures would be 
comparatively bare. (See note on John 6 : 10.")^ 

" Not only is it impossible to determine with any degree of 
certainty the day of the month, but the time of the year also is 
equally uncertain. The chief thing that appears proved is that 
December twenty-fifth is not the time, since the shepherds would 
hardly be in the fields at night with the flocks, which were usually 
taken into the folds in November and kept in till March. The 
nights of December would scarcely allow watching in the moun- 
tain fields even as far south as Bethlehem. And besides, the 
long journey from Nazareth to Bethlehem would hardly be made 
by Joseph and Mary in winter, the rainy season. McClellan 
argues for December twenty-fifth, but his arguments are not 
convincing. The ancients had various days for Christ's birth: 
May 20 (Clement of Alexandria), April 20, December 25, Jan- 
uary 5. Tertullian and others even say that the day of his birth 
(December 25) was kept in the register at Rome. But chronol- 
ogists attach little weight to this testimony, since the same tradi- 
tion puts the birth of John, June 24, the annunciation to Mary, 
March 25, and Elizabeth's conception, September 25 — the four 
cardinal points of the year. If one might hazard an opinion, it 
would be that the birth of Jesus occurred in the summer or early 
in the fall of 749." * (A. U. C.) 

" Can we go further and determine the time of year or the 
month and day of the nativity? It should be borne in mind that 
our Christmas festival was not observed earlier than the fourth 
century, and that the evidence is well-nigh conclusive that Decem- 
ber 25 was finally selected for the nativity in order to hallow 

2 Andrews, " Life of Our Lord," p. 44. 

3 Alford, " Greek Testament," p. 456. 

* Broadus, " Harmony of the Gospels," p. 240. 



DATE OF THE BIRTH 



a much earlier and widely spread pagan festival coincident with 
the ivinter solstice. If anything exists to suggest the time of year 
it is Luke's mention of ' shepherds in the field keeping watch by 
night over their flock* (2:8). This seems to indicate that it 
must have been in the summer season. In winter the flocks would 
be folded, not pastured, by night. 

" It therefore seems probable that Jesus was born in the sum- 
mer of 6 B. C. ; that he was baptized in A. D. 26; that the first 
Passover of his ministry was in the spring of 26 or zy; and that 
he was crucified in the spring of 29 or 30." ° 

" The birth of Christ, without doubt, took place some years 
before the date at present received. . . The season at which Christ 
was born is inferred from the fact that he was six months younger 
than John, respecting the date of ^vhose birth we have the help of 
knowing the time of the annunciation during his father's minis- 
trations in Jerusalem. 

" Still the whole subject is very uncertain. Ewald appears to 
fix the date of the birth as five years earlier than our era. 
Petavius and Usher fix it as on the twenty-fifth of December; 
Anger and Winer, four years before our era, in the spring; 
Scaliger, three years before our era, in October; Saint Jerome, 
three years before our era, on December 25; Eusebius, two years 
before our era, on January 6; and Ideler, seven years before our 
era, in December." ^ 

6 Rhees, "The Life of Jesus of Nazareth," pp. 55, 56. 

« Geikie, " Life and Words of Christ," Vol. I, pp. 558, 559, 



CHAPTER II 

THE JOURNEY FOR ENROLMENT AND RETURN TO GALILEE 

From Nazareth to Bethlehem 

The Gospel narrative is remarkable for brevity. Hence it is 
not strange that even thoughtful expositors should sometimes be 
found giving too little time to a transaction or series of events. 
They may bring different transactions too near together, in some 
instances assigning them to the same occasion, or making them 
follow one another in immediate succession. 

We are led to this line of thought by the usual expositions on 
the childhood of Jesus. Here very little is known, and so few 
incidents recorded, that we see no need or propriety in giving 
them too limited space of time for their occurrence. 

Take, for instance, the journey for the enrolment. Certain 
expositors and preachers convey the idea that Joseph and Mary, 
having set out from Nazareth in the morning, arrived at Bethlehem 
the ensuing night; and this, though Mary, as one writer represents, 
" plodded along on foot." And the hurry of events continues : 
"because there was no room for them in the inn" (Luke 2:7), 
Mary, yve are told, becomes the immediate occupant of a stable, 
and there, after leaving Nazareth that morning, before another 
sunrise, she gave birth to the infant Saviour. 

Now, the events are remarkable enough in themselves, without 
any attempt of this kind to make them more so by compressing 
them into so brief a space of time. The distance from Nazareth 
to Bethlehem, as a bird would fly, appears to be about seventy 
miles ; and as Joseph and Mary traveled, we venture to say it could 
not have been less than eighty or ninety miles. Thus, without any 
need of supposing that Mary traveled on foot, the journey must 
have been three, probably four, days in duration. Moreover, it is 
not necessary to suppose prophecy came so near being a failure, 
as might justly be asserted, if Mary gave birth to her child the 
very night of her arrival in Bethlehem. 

We think the New Testament record forbids such an interpre- 
tation. It was only when the time came for Mary to be delivered 
that there was "no room for them in the inn." This was not 
immediately on their arrival in Bethlehem. The fact is stated 



JOURNEY FOR ENROLMENT 



that Joseph went up to Bethlehem to be enrolled, and that Mary 
went with him. Note how the narrative continues : " And it 
came to pass, while they were there" (Luke 2:6). This 
implies that they had been in Bethlehem some time, that they had 
been there longer than was necessary for their enrolment. They 
could have got away sooner. What, then, is here implied? We 
believe that when the enrolment was first announced Mary fore- 
saw that the anticipated birth might be in Bethlehem, hence having 
arrived at Bethlehem, she stayed on. 

If their purpose for being in Bethlehem was simply enrolment, 
they could doubtless have managed so as to be independent of 
any accommodation in Bethlehem even for a night. Having stopped 
in the vicinity overnight, they could have gone into the village 
early in the morning, attended to the enrolment, and returned at 
night. Again, if it had not been in Mary's plan (as well as God's) 
for her child to be born in Bethlehem, she could have selected on 
her journey thither some favorable place and with the least pos- 
sible delay in Bethlehem have returned there for her confinement. 
But evidently all planning of this kind was foreign to Mary's mind. 
A stable or cave in Bethlehem was more inviting to her than the 
most comfortable abode outside of its historic limits. 

The Inn and the Stable 

It seems to be a somewhat favorite notion that Mary occupied 
one of the stalls of the inn (caravansary, as it really was). Such 
a notion, however, is in conflict with the clause, " No room for 
them in the inn." The inn being for the accommodation of both 
travelers and their beasts, these latter occupied stalls, which, 
in the main, were on the ground immediately beneath the room 
assigned for the former. Thus the stalls were a part of the inn. 
But not so, we think, with Mary's quarters. She had withdrawn 
from all such publicity. Few persons, we apprehend, knew where 
she was, or, indeed, anything about her. She, beyond any other 
woman, had the ability to keep her own counsel and maintain the 
dignity of a well-bred exclusiveness. Hence, when the shepherds 
came, they may not have readily found her. " They found her," 
is the text in English, but the Greek verb implies more than this, 
an effort in tracing out and finding the object sought. It was 
probably some barn in the vicinity, one of those vacated of their 
usual occupants, the beasts; for happily, it was in the shepherd 
season when the barns thus vacated afforded accommodation for 

B 



10 THE EARLY LIFE OF JESUS 

the overflow of strangers. It was one of those, no doubt, which 
Joseph selected for Mary, when no room could be exclusively 
appropriated for their use in the inn. They probably had time to 
make their quarters clean and, indeed, comfortable, as no fire was 
needed. The barrenness of the stable may have been alleviated 
by fresh boughs from the nearest glens. Gentle ferns overspread 
with linen may have constituted a tiny bed for the infant; and 
hanging from above, festoons of bay and oleander may have 
smiled down on the new-born Saviour as he lay in the manger. 

In order to adapt the record to the winter season, certain 
expositors have been found pleading for a pleasant spell of 
weather in the last of December, when Bethlehem shepherds may 
have taken their flocks out for a short distance for a chance at 
some temporary verdure. Hence, as travelers speak of a plain in 
the rear of the town with a clump of olives in the center, it is 
fancied that there the shepherds saw the heavenly host in jubilee 
over the Messiah's advent. But this is only another instance 
where space is contracted and events unduly crowded together. 
Why not let our conjectures bend to the plain statement of 
facts ? 

The Shepherds 

"And there were shepherds in the same country" (Luke 2:8). 
This means the country in which Bethlehem was situated, Judea, 
not Galilee. Had it meant the neighborhood of Bethlehem, the 
scholarly pen of Luke would have been less vague, and have 
said so. As it is, the text is equivalent to saying it was not in the 
Bethlehem neighborhood. " Shepherds . . . abiding," not there 
for a night or two, but for the season. " Abiding in the field," 
one word in Greek ; " living," as Thayer says, " under the open 
sky," away from home. We do not know that their home was in 
Bethlehem. But what the word particularly implies is that it was 
not in the winter season, but in the portion of the year employed 
for shepherding, to wit, from March to November; and as to the 
place, somewhere in those parts of Judea which were appropriated 
to shepherding; not perhaps in the time when David attended his 
father's flocks, but more than a thousand years after, when our 
Lord was born, some place it was, which, as we may well pre- 
sume, was still in a state of wilderness retirement. Verse fifteen 
decides this question of distance. "Let us now go even unto," 
the Greek says "all the way to," "Bethlehem." "Let us go, 



RETURN TO NAZARETH ii 

far as it is." They went, and though "with haste," no doubt the 
day had dawned when they got there; and the morning light was 
probably an essential aid to them in finding the sacred seclusion. 
We see, moreover, nothing in the account suggestive that the 
home of the shepherds was in Bethlehem. 

From Jerusalem to Nazareth 

Expositors follow the sacred family from Bethlehem to Jerusalem. 
They admit the demonstrations of Simeon and Anna paid to 
the infant Saviour in the temple. But why take them from the 
temple back to Bethlehem, not allowing them to return to Nazareth 
till after the flight into Egypt? Nowhere in all the range of exposi- 
tion do we see less regard for the Gospel narrative. Luke follows 
the account of the presentation with these words : " And when 
they had accomplished all things that were according to the law 
of the Lord, they returned into Galilee to their own city, Naza- 
reth." It is as certain when they left the temple that they pro- 
ceeded directly to Nazareth, as that when they first left Nazareth 
they proceeded to Bethlehem. To tell us that when they left the 
temple they returned back to Bethlehem indicates not merely a 
disregard of the divine record, it is equivalent to saying that 
Joseph and Mary were vagrants, that they either had no home or 
did not know, where it was. Why should they go back to Bethle- 
hem? Was not the birth of Jesus past? Had not heaven itself 
come down to recognize and celebrate the birth? Was not the 
heart of Mary already experiencing all the fulness of a complete 
and exalted satisfaction over her visit to Bethlehem? And now 
that she saw the accumulating joy spreading and, through Simeon 
and Anna, to fill the hearts of all who were looking for redemption, 
what mortals had ever made a two months' journey and were 
returning home with such exalted satisfaction as Joseph and Mary, 
with the child Jesus, on their way from the temple to Nazareth? 

And here we must notice that this eventful journey was con- 
ducted in a strictly business way. They troubled no others with 
what was their affair alone. Their self-reliance made the barn 
more honorable than any dwelling that hospitality could have 
offered. There was no unnecessary delay. When they stopped in 
Jerusalem it was for a special purpose. We give the words again : 
" And when they had accomplished all things that were according 
to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee to their own 
city, Nazareth." 



CHAPTER III 

THE ARRIVAL OF THE MAGI 

The Age of Jesus When the Magi Came 

In spite of Luke's narrative to the contrary, a v^riter for the 
Sunday-schools tells us, not by way of conjecture, but as a matter 
of fact, that the holy family, on leaving the temple, turned back 
to Bethlehem. No event, he says, in the history of the holy 
family comes between the scene in the temple and the arrival 
of the Magi in Bethlehem. This is the same as to tell us that the 
family could not have gone from the temple directly to Nazareth, 
since they must be back in Bethlehem, jyhere the Magi would be 
in search for them. But where is the evidence that they were 
apprised of the Magi's coming? The truth is, there is no purpose 
conceivable for which they would at that time have returned 
there. They could have left home for the enrolment but ill- 
prepared for an absence already extending to more than eight 
weeks. Moreover, the words, " when they had accomplished all 
things that were according to the law," forbid even a conjecture 
that there was anything remaining to prolong their absence from 
Nazareth. 

An expositor counts the forty days after the birth as giving the 
Magi precisely time enough, after seeing the star, to travel from 
their far-off country to Jerusalem; as if the Magi, when they saw 
the star, reached their conclusion as to its import, and with the 
rising sun set out on a six or eight-hundred-mile journey to 
Jerusalem. On the contrary it seems more likely, and also more 
in accord with the facts, so briefly stated, that between a 
decision as to the real nature of the star and, then, what special 
event was portended by it, the Magi were employed a year or 
longer before they became so certain in the conclusion they had 
decided upon, secured their costly gifts, and set out on the long 
journey, and, when arriving in Jerusalem, were prepared without 
any additional confirmation to inquire, as they did (Matt. 2:2), 
" Where is he that is born King of the Jews ? " 

Doctor Broadus is evidently correct in his comment on this 
point of inquiry. Referring to the time the Magi arrived in 
Jerusalem, he says, " It was long ago that they saw the star." 
12 



ARRIVAL OF THE MAGI 13 

How this is known, the context appears to make plain. Herod 
was intent on learning when the star was first seen. For this 
reason he probably knew the month and possibly the very night 
on which the new king was born. Having thus learned his age, 
when afterward he saw nothing more of the Magi, he knew how 
to word his decree : " All the male children . . . from two years 
old and mider " (Matt. 2 : 16). In view of these words there is 
good reason to feel assured that Jesus was approaching two years 
of age when the Magi appeared in Jerusalem. 

The Early Home in Bethlehem 

There is no conflict between the two Gospel narratives. If 
Luke's account of the enrolment journey ends with the holy 
family in Nazareth, and Matthew, describing events which occurred 
some time after, represents the Magi as finding the holy family in 
Bethlehem, it does not imply a conflict. Could the fact be more 
plainly indicated, that there had been a change of residence — a 
change from Nazareth to Bethlehem? And what could be more 
natural? Had not Bethlehem become sufficiently hallowed to the 
parents by what had taken place there during their memorable 
visit, to make it seem altogether desirable for the child Jesus to 
be brought up in the city of David, as well as to be born there? 
Harmony is secured by the idea that, quite soon, Mary and Joseph, 
though possibly unnoticed by their acquaintances, were making 
preparations for a change ; and that after a while they were found 
making another journey to Bethlehem; this time not alone, nor for 
enrolment, but with the infant Jesus. 

The lack of harmony is not with the Gospel writers. It is more 
likely to be with the expositors. When in connection with the 
Magi's arrival in Jerusalem, one expositor says, " It was long 
before that the star was first seen," thus virtually admitting it 
was long before their arrival that the Saviour was born, he should 
not afterward be found saying that "possibly the parents went to 
Nazareth before the Magi found them in Bethlehem." What else 
is probable? Indeed, hardly anything is more certain. 

This "long ago that the Magi saw the star," we are glad to 
see, for it seems to correct an error made by the expositor over 
that first sentence of Matthew, which introduces the Magi. We 
allude to his comment on the clause, " Now when Jesus was born." 
He says, "The narrative keeps right on (from the birth of the 
Saviour to the visit of the Magi), which implies a close connection 



14 THE EARLY LIFE OF JESUS 

of the events." This does not at all accord jvith the expression, 
" long ago," when he afterward comes to it. On close inspection 
of the original text, we find it by no means warrants what the 
expositor explains : " A close connection between the birth of the 
Saviour and the visit of the Magi." 

The rendering of such passages as verse 3, " And when Herod, 
the king, heard it " ; verse 7, " Then Herod privily called the wise 
men " ; verse 9, *' And they having heard the king," and many other 
such cases where a perfect past is used, are strictly correct; and, 
if the opening clause of the chapter had been rendered with the 
same precision, it would have been : " Now when Jesus had been 
born in Bethlehem of Judea, behold, there came wise men." This 
mode of expression does not declare a close connection of the 
two events. It does imply a period of time intervening, an in- 
definite period, it may be short and it may be long. We know it 
was an indefinite period, when, some time after Joseph and Mary 
had their temporary abode of six or seven weeks there, and had 
returned to Nazareth, and then changing their residence, made 
their home in Bethlehem, the Magi found them in Bethlehem; 
according to the best evidence we have, when Jesus was about 
two years old; old enough to take an interest in his new friends, 
and watch them with due curiosity when they opened the treasures ; 
old enough to enjoy the aroma of the Arabian incense, and hold in 
his little hands the Persian gold ; while the Magi in turn, no doubt, 
took an equal interest in observing his early development and his 
first mastery of Aramaic words. 

Certain events had occurred, and had apparently been forgotten, 
both in Bethlehem and Jerusalem before the coming of the Magi. 
The records regarding both these events tend to indicate that a 
considerable time, many months, had intervened before the appear- 
ance of the Magi in Jerusalem and Bethlehem. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE MISSION OF THE MAGI, THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT AND RETURN 

Reason for the Visit of the Magi 

Can any inference be drawn from the account given of the visit 
of the Magi to Jerusalem and Bethlehem, of the purpose or 
purposes that led them to make the long journey into a foreign 
country, and to a foreign people ; or of the purposes God may have 
had in sending them there ? 

When they appeared before Herod, they asked: "Where is he 
that is born King of the Jews ? for we saw his star in the east, and 
are come to worship him " (Matt. 2:2). And when they reached 
Bethlehem, "They rejoiced with exceeding great joy. And they 
came into the house and saw the young child with Mary, his 
mother; and they fell down and worshiped him, and opening their 
treasures, they offered unto him gifts, gold and frankincense and 
myrrh" (Matt. 2 : 10, 11). 

Probably these men were simply seeking more light; and they 
appear to have been satisfied with their visit, since it is said, 
" They rejoiced with exceeding great joy," and presented gifts of 
great value to the young King. The gifts were an essential part 
of the worship offered, as giving always is. And this is the first 
act of worship recorded in our Christian era. 

Flight into Egypt 

But how suddenly the scene changes in the little home from 
rejoicing and exultation to anxiety and dismay! 

The visit of the Magi was followed at once with a warning: 
"Arise and take the young child and his mother, and flee into 
Egypt, and be thou there till I tell thee" (Matt. 2 : 13). And 
they departed hastily by night. 

There is room for the conjecture that, while the journey for 
enrolment was doubtless in summer, the flight into Egypt may have 
been in winter. If, according to the view which prevailed during 
the first two centuries, the Saviour's birth was in April or May; 
if, also, according to the time Herod drew from the Magi, the 
child was twenty months old or more when found by them in 
Bethlehem, then obviously the flight which immediately followed 

15 



i6 THE EARLY LIFE OF JESUS 

their visit was in winter. To commiserate Mary for the hardship 
of that first journey to Bethlehem is wholly gratuitous. That 
journey, like the season of the year in which it was made, was 
full of joy and hope, and Mary journeyed on, her soul aglow 
with the most exalted anticipations. But jvhat a contrast the 
flight from Bethlehem presents! In the night, and doubtless, 
the winter night, possibly cold and dismal; home abandoned, un- 
protected, friendless; though hastening on, yet liable to be over- 
taken, the mother clings to her child, not knowing how soon the 
hirelings of the king, in quest of the child's life, may overtake 
them. 

We cannot disconnect this scene from that utterance from 
Christ's lips in one of his last interviews with his special followers. 
It is quite possible that it was in reference to what the family suf- 
fered from the midnight cold during that flight in winter, that the 
Saviour, when he announced the fate of Jerusalem, said among his 
last words to his friends : " Pray that your flight be not in the 
winter" (Matt. 24 : 20). 

Out of Egypt 

It is a matter of surprise into how brief a space of time exposi- 
tors are found compressing the events they treat of. For instance, 
one is found " allowing six months between the birth in Bethlehem 
and the return from Egypt." Now, as it was probably about two 
years after the birth that the flight was made, then, allowing 
only a six-months' stay in Egypt, the return to Israel spoken of by 
Matthew, instead of being six months after the Saviour's birth, 
was probably at least two years and six months after. But the 
stay in Egypt depends on the length of time Herod lived after the 
family fled there. If it was two years, then the holy family was 
more than two years in Egypt. And as Jesus must have been about 
two when taken there, he would have been about four years 
old, when, arriving, as it jvere, in sight of that dear home in 
Bethlehem, the holy family was driven to the dreary alternative 
of an abode in Nazareth. Instead of being six months old, or a 
year and six months, the Saviour was probably three or four 
years old. 

Thus from the time Mary on her return from the enrolment 
arrived in Nazareth with the infant Jesus in her arms to the time 
of her return there from Egypt, it was either three or four years, 
according as the family was either one or two years in Egypt. 



RETURN FROM EGYPT 17 

So far as it is probable that Herod lived one or two years after 
the massacre of the infants, it becomes consistent for us to say 
the child Jesus was either three or four years old, when, a second 
time, he jvas taken by his parents to Nazareth; and Nazareth 
became his home until he left to be baptized by John at Bethany 
beyond Jordan. 

They tell ws that Herod died four years before our Christian 
era, as commonly reckoned, commences. But what is equally 
evident is, that Jesus was born about three years before Herod 
died. Hence the real Christian era commenced some six or seven 
years earlier than the so-called Christian era. 



CHAPTER V 

THE EARLY YEARS 

The Babe Jesus 

The condensed form of the Gospel narratives would lead one to 
think that the various events connected vvith the birth and child- 
hood of Jesus took place almost simultaneously, and on this account 
some v\^riters have been led to make some very peculiar state- 
ments. For example, one says, " It must have been at least forty 
days after the birth of Jesus that the wise men appeared." He 
seems to think that the wise men must have come to Bethlehem 
during Joseph's sojourn there for the enrolment, for he says, 
" The home of Joseph and Mary was Nazareth, but they were 
temporarily at Bethlehem for the enrolment." Thus he puts the 
visit of the ;5A^ise men immediately after the presentation in the 
temple. The sojourn in Bethlehem, therefore, must have continued 
after the presentation. But according to the record in Luke 
(2 : 39), "And when they had accomplished all things that were 
according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee to 
their own city, Nazareth." 

The Child Jesus 

The late Doctor Talmage, in one of his sermons, puts the visit 
of the wise men on the very night of the birth of Jesus. He tells 
us how the cattle snuffed at the myrrh and how the wise men 
wrapped portions of it in the swaddling clothes of the babe. He 
further says that the mother, only the day before, through Decem- 
ber mud and sleet, had trudged all the way from Nazareth to be 
entertained in a barn. This may do very well for poetic license, 
but it will not stand the strain of historical truth. For, if the visit 
of the wise men occurred on the very night of Jesus' birth, Joseph, 
in the few moments of sleep allotted to him, had his dream. How 
soon the mother also must leave the bed of straw with the infant 
in her arms and go out into the night for the purpose of under- 
taking the journey to Egypt! Somewhere on the way the circum- 
cision must take place, and according to Doctor Talmage, the 
family must return from Egypt for a hurried visit to Jerusalem 
for the presentation in the temple and the events attendant thereon. 
18 



THE EARLY YEARS 19 

Another expositor in one of our leading journals improves upon 
all this, for he states that it was after the presentation in the 
temple that the wise men appeared, but spoils it all by adding that 
the wise men appeared in Bethlehem during the temporary sojourn 
of Joseph in that town for enrolment. Matthew, in his Gospel, 
says not one word about any such sojourn. Luke gives all the 
particulars about it, and closes the account in such a way as to 
make it certain that immediately after the presentation in the 
temple the holy family were on their way to Nazareth. Nothing is 
more natural than the inference that the termination of their 
sojourn in Bethlehem was regulated by the time when they must be 
in Jerusalem for the presentation, so that when they left Bethlehem 
they could make the necessary stop in Jerusalem and then keep 
right on toward Nazareth. Thus the sojourn could have ended 
with no visit of the wise men, which, though happy in itself, 
brought with it the first great sorrow. We believe that the sojourn 
in Bethlehem during the enrolment was a very happy period in 
Mary's life. It ended in no cruel flight into Egypt, or the murder 
of Bethlehem infants, but rather in the successful return of the 
parents to their home in Nazareth. 

Matthew (2:1) introduces his account of the visit of the wise 
men with these words, " Now when Jesus was born," or, literally 
translated, " Jesus having been born." This puts the event some- 
where in the past, but how far back is the question. If we knew, 
it would reveal the age of Jesus at the time the wise men appeared 
in Bethlehem. But Herod knew exactly. He found it out from 
the wise men themselves, for he was shrewd enough to see that 
if he learned the precise time when the star appeared he would 
know the age of the infant king. Therefore he privately called 
the wise men and learned from them the exact time when the star 
appeared. This enabled him to mark the limit of age of the male 
children who were to be slain, according to his decree, in Bethle- 
hem. But why "two years old and under"? Matthew tells us 
that it \vas according to the time which he had exactly learned of 
the wise men. (2 : 16.) Therefore the conclusion is obvious that 
Jesus must have been about two years old when Herod ordered 
the slaughter of the innocents. 

In corroboration of the above we submit the Greek words used 
with reference to the infant Jesus and with reference to the child 
Jesus. When the shepherds saw Jesus on the night of his birth 
they saw the babe, and the Greek word is " hrepkos" But when 



20 THE EARLY LIFE OF JESUS 

Herod found out when the star first appeared he does not say 
" Go search for the babe (brephos) ," but " Go search for the child 
(paidion)." They did so, and the account, as it proceeds, has 
this term " paidion" as appHed to Jesus nine times, and the term 
" brephos " not once. " The star stood over where the child 
(paidion) was," not " brephos/' a babe. " They came into the 
house (oikos — not a barn or stable), and saw the child (paidion) 
with Mary, his mother." Mark, it is not the mother with the 
child, but the child with his mother. Thus, all through, the 
phraseology accords with jyhat Herod had learned as to the age of 
the new king. 

We think that no one, as he reads it, is warranted in supposing 
for a moment that Matthew is speaking of an infant scarcely two 
months old. "And opening their treasures they offered unto him 
(not his mother) gifts." I think his eyes sparkled. Possibly he 
took the gold into his own hands, and, while still a child, he was 
old enough to walk and talk, as children of that age usually 
walk and talk. 

From Nazareth to Bethlehem the Second Time 

We have said that Luke, after a full account of the nativity, 
leaves the holy family in Nazareth. How, then, do we explain the 
visit of the wise men to Jesus in Bethlehem? The explanation is 
this: Joseph and Mary with the child Jesus, having returned to 
Nazareth, as Luke says, soon after planned to give up their 
home in Nazareth and move to Bethlehem. They probably felt 
that it was not enough that Jesus should have been born in 
Bethlehem, but he must also grow up in Bethlehem. It was this 
sentiment that hastened their preparations for a removal to Bethle- 
hem, hence they were soon in their new home there. The home 
(oikos) over which the star hung was probably built by Joseph's 
own hands. It was certainly the home of Joseph and Mary. 
Jesus was in his period of wonderful development. With him, 
Joseph and Mary enjoyed the sweetness of content and all the 
assurance of hope. But soon, indeed, the sorrow fell. The dis- 
tinguished gifts of the wise men must be employed to assist their 
hasty flight to Egypt. 

And still, in spite of all this, we think Mary kept up her cour- 
age. She could indulge in the sweet prospect of a return to that 
dear home in Bethlehem. She was in a very trance of delight 
when the time came to set out on their journey from Egypt to their 



THE EARLY YEARS 21 

native land. Jesus was in his third year; he may have been in his 
fourth year. What an interesting traveling companion he must 
have been, as it was in this early period that the child grew and 
waxed strong, filled with wisdom. (Luke 2 : 40.) And when the 
party halted by some well or spring for their midday repast, we 
can well imagine how the child would make his little rambles by 
himself and bring back curiosities in the shape of flowers and 
stones for his parents to see and admire. 

But what an unexpected check upon their joy and hopes when 
they learned that, though Herod was dead, there would be no 
safety for the child Jesus in his own native city of Bethlehem. 
The mother's heart fails her as she faces the sad alternative of 
leaving the birthplace of her firstborn and proceeding northward to 
Galilee and to Nazareth. What she dreaded she could not avert. 
Her home, after all, was to be in Nazareth, and her son, coming 
to manhood, would be called the Nazarene. 

But as to all these events portrayed by Matthew, Luke is silent, 
just as Matthew himself is silent concerning the particulars of 
nativity as given by Luke. Luke, however, when he dismissed 
the account of the nativity, added this general but suggestive 
remark: "And the child grew and waxed strong, filled with 
wisdom, and the grace of God was upon him." Having said this, 
he passes over the subsequent events as given by Matthew, and 
which we have been considering, to a more advanced period when 
Jesus, at the age of twelve, is spoken of as the boy, pais, when, 
being in Jerusalem, he passed his time in the temple in the company 
of the learned, entertaining them, and no doubt being himself 
entertained. 

The Boy Jesus 

Thus the Gospel narratives present before us three scenes of the 
early life of Jesus, each clear and distinct from the other. One, 
taken from the period when he was known as the babe " hrephos," 
embraces only the first six or eight weeks after his birth and 
continues to the time when the parents return from the enrolment 
to Nazareth. The second is taken from the period when he was 
known as a child, " paidion," being in his second year, and when 
the holy family had abandoned Nazareth, making Bethlehem their 
permanent home. This period embraces the visit of the wise men, 
the flight into Egypt, the massacre of the infants, and the reluc- 
tant exchange of Bethlehem for Nazareth as the future home of 



22 THE EARLY LIFE OF JESUS 

the holy family, Jesus then being in his third year, or possibly in 
his fourth year. The third account is taken from the period 
when Jesus is no longer the little child but the real boy, making 
that excursion to Jerusalem where we see the bent of his spirit as, 
by himself, he seeks the temple, and with no introduction, com- 
mendation, or prestige, he becomes a companion of the most 
exalted teachers of the nation, sitting in their midst, hearing them, 
and asking them questions. 

Each of the sketches that sets forth these three periods ends by 
bringing Jesus to Nazareth. But none of the incidents took place 
in Nazareth. What we see of Jesus in his " hrephos " period is in 
Bethlehem and Jerusalem; in his '' paidion" period it is in Bethle- 
hem and in Egypt; in his ''pais" period it is in Jerusalem. As 
for Nazareth, what he did there or what befell him there, either as 
"" hrephos I* " paidion," or " pais," the Gospel writers have be- 
queathed to us not one solitary incident. We know of his thrice 
coming to Nazareth, also that he remained there subject to his 
parents; but all else is silence up to the period of his public min- 
istry. Early he received the most significant marks of honor and 
worship, but not one that we know of in Nazareth, though he had 
a steady residence there of twenty-six years, perhaps twenty- 
seven, but not thirty, as is generally supposed. 



CHAPTER VI 

NO REFERENCE MADE BY JOHN THE BAPTIST TO EVENTS IN THE 

CHILDHOOD OF JESUS 

The Ministry of John 

The work of John the Baptist had been going on for months. 
He had baptized muUitudes, all in expectation of Him that should 
come after him. We need no Josephus to tell us that the excite- 
ment during the period of this baptizing was great; for it must 
have been obvious to the people who believed John that he who 
should prove to be the Messiah would be some one of the present 
generation already living among them. But who he was and 
where he was nobody knew, not even John himself, waiting as he 
was during all these months for him to be pointed out. We regard 
it as most remarkable in this connection that, during this period 
of excitement, none of the older people who are commonly watch- 
ful of the younger, and quick to notice the signs of future distinc- 
tion, and no one of the great teachers or scribes should have 
recalled what the shepherds reported when they came and found 
the babe in the manger; no one asked what became of the infant 
that Simeon took in his arms, praising God that he had lived to 
see the Messiah ; no one recalled the testimony of Anna that she 
made to all who were looking for the redemption in Jerusalem; no 
one questioned whether the child sought by the Magi, near thirty 
years ago, was really among the children that were slain by 
Herod. Surely some of these doctors of law, who, eighteen years 
before, were astonished at an unknown boy of twelve years, sitting 
in their midst, hearing them and asking questions, would have 
been saying to one another: " Don't you remember that boy? Who 
knows but the one John is speaking of, who is to come after him, 
will prove to be that very boy ? " 

Reasons for Silence 

How, then, does it happen that when John proclaimed the 
Messiah ready to appear, and the people in such numbers believed 
his word, they still seemed to be so perfectly oblivious to any 
connection between his preaching and those early scenes in the 
life of Mary's son ? How happens it that when Jesus of Nazareth 

23 



24 THE EARLY LIFE OF JESUS 

is finally known as the person pointed out by John as the Messiah, 
and when his ministry commences in that distinguished character, 
that still, and even from that time on to his exit from earth, there 
appears to be no intimation whatever that Jesus of Nazareth 
was ever thought of, even by his disciples, in connection with the 
shepherds, with Simeon and Anna, or with the Magi; with the 
flight into Egypt, or as a child at the age of twelve sitting in the 
midst of learned men, hearing them and askftj^ them questions. 

It seems to be left for us to presume that the marvelous report 
of the shepherds, jvhatever excitement it had made at the time, was 
regarded by persons of character as the visionary tale of ignorant 
men; so much so that after thirty years one would be ashamed to 
speak of it, or let it be known that he remembered it. As for 
Simeon and Anna, all that was a whimsical dream, a kind of 
pleasing stimulus to ignorant minds. True, a year or two later, 
the Magi came, but they were mysteriously gone and no more 
heard of. There was more perhaps in the boy of twelve to amaze 
the leaders of public opinion than in anything else; but those 
leaders were not free to speak even to one another of an occur- 
rence which indicated their inferiority to a lad of twelve years, 
a Galilean. 

Thus it was, if any one had a passing thought of an infant found 
in a stable, or of some parents offering turtle-doves in the temple 
for the consecration of their child, or of certain Magi, perhaps 
fictitious, who once came to Jerusalem crazed with their omen of a 
star, he would have been ashamed to speak of it, not willing to 
incur the imputation of lunacy. 

The Sign of the Dove 

It is quite apparent that, although so many for so long a period, 
were being baptized, every baptism declaring the kingdom of 
heaven at hand, the Messiah already come, possibly among them, 
though not pointed out, during this prolonged period for reflection, 
even John himself as yet did not know who the person was that 
was to be pointed out. (John i : 33.) This much he did know, 
that the person would come to the baptism, and he would know 
him, not necessarily his name and residence, by the sign of the 
Spirit's descending and abiding on him. At length there came 
one to the baptism with the miraculous sign, the unmistakable sign 
visible to John. We know now that it was the son of Mary, but 
John does not say it was. All that he knows or seems to care 



SILENCE OF JOHN ON EARLY YEARS 25 

for is the sign that Heaven had promised, descending and abiding 
on him who had come to be baptized. 

Thus Jesus was baptized just as any and all had been baptized. 
The heavens opened unto him, not as he jyas baptized, but when, 
having been baptized, as he came up out of the water, he tvas 
praying; in prayer it was that the heavens were opened and the 
Holy Spirit descended in bodily form as a dove upon him; and 
there came a voice out of heaven: "This is my beloved Son in 
whom I am well pleased" (Matt. 3 : 17). 

From the record we cannot discover that any unusual excite- 
ment attended this occasion. The reason is obvious. The mani- 
festation appears to have been made only to Jesus himself and to 
his forerunner. So far as the people knew, nothing unusual had 
occurred. John 'had simply baptized a GaHIean. And even this, 
that he was a Galilean, may not have been known at the time. 
Jesus immediately withdraws for the long fast in the wilderness; 
and John makes no disclosure of the extraordinary occurrence 
at the baptism. This silence continues for more than six weeks. 



CHAPTER VII 

JESUS OF NAZARETH REVEALED AS THE MESSIAH 

John's Mission and Preaching 

There are a number of interesting events in connection with 
the beginning of Jesus' pubhc ministry that may repay a brief 
examination. 

It was revealed to Zacharias that his son, John the Baptist, 
should be called the prophet of the Most High, and should make 
ready for the Lord a people prepared for him. When the time for 
this service had come, in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius 
Caesar, when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, and Herod 
tetrarch of Galilee, John came from his home in the wilderness 
of Judea to the regions roundabout the Jordan, preaching the 
baptism of repentance unto the remission of sins. Like his dis- 
tinguished successor, John had probably been driven into the 
wilderness for his preparatory training. He must have been 
a man of fervent spirit and a preacher of great power, for the 
multitudes went out from the cities to hear his message and to be 
baptized of him. He was preeminently a preacher of righteous- 
ness. His message was to all classes, and must have made a pro- 
found impression, as his hearers cried out, " What then must we 
do ? " His answer was equally significant when he replied : " He 
that hath two coats let him impart to him that hath none; 
and he that hath food, let him do likewise" (Luke 3 : 10, 11). 
This form of service may have been suggested by local conditions, 
as the multitudes were in the wilderness. 

Even the Pharisees and Sadducees, the publicans and the soldiers 
came to hear him, and he had a message suited to each one. " And 
as the people were in expectation and all men reasoned in their 
hearts concerning John, whether haply he were the Christ" (Luke 
3 : 16), his answer was: "There cometh one that is mightier than 
I ... he shall baptize you in the Holy Spirit and in fire." 

Later the Pharisees sent a delegation of priests and Levites to 
ask him, " Who art thou ? " and he answered, " I am not the 
Christ." Then followed another question, " Why then baptizest 
thou, if thou art not the Christ, neither Elijah, neither the 
26 



THE MESSIAH REVEALED 27 

prophet?" John answered them, saying: " I baptize you in water. 
In the midst of you standeth one whom ye know not, even he that 
Cometh after me, the latchet of whose shoe I am not worthy to 
unloose" (John i : 24-27). This last statement is an advance 
on what had before been disclosed. Before they had known only 
that a Messiah into whose name they had been baptized would 
come, who would be of the lineage of David. 

John must have made a marked impression in his time, since 
allusion is made to him by Mark toward the close of Jesus' 
Galilean ministry, and again during Passion week, and Luke refers 
to him in his Gospel, and to his disciples in the eighteenth and 
nineteenth of Acts. 

Josephus also bears testimony to John's great power and work. 
We quote a sentence or two : " Now some of the Jews thought the 
destruction of Herod's army came from God, and that very 
justly, as a punishment for what he did against John, who was 
called the Baptist. For Herod had him put to death though he 
was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both 
as to justice toward one another, and piety toward God, and so 
come to baptism; for baptism would be acceptable to God, if they 
made use of it not in order to expiate some sin, but for the puri- 
fication of the body, provided that the soul was thoroughly purified 
beforehand by righteousness. Many flocked to hear him, for they 
were greatly moved by hearing his words." 

Baptism of Jesus 

John had a mission, and he imderstood it. It was to proclaim 
a new era among men, with the coming of the long-promised 
Christ. Yet it seems that he did not know who he was that would 
come, nor did he know Jesus when he presented himself for bap- 
tism. (John I : 33.) It had been revealed to him that he should 
know the Christ hy a sign, a dove descending and lighting upon 
his head. There has been much discussion about this sign, how it 
appeared to John and to others; but it seems probable that it was 
a sign in John's mind only, and not visible to others. 

When Jesus came and offered himself for baptism without the 
sign, John must have been impressed with the conviction that he 
stood in the presence of a man holier than himself; for he said, 
" I have need to be baptized of thee." Jesus replied, " Suffer it to 
be so now," and John yielded to the request. When Jesus came 
up out of the water, and John saw him praying, he saw also the 



2^ THE EARLY LIFE OF JESUS 

promised sign, the Spirit of God descending as a dove, with the 
added words, " This is my beloved Son." 

The First Five Disciples 

This was really John's pointing out of Jesus of Nazareth as the 
Christ, but it is morally certain that no one, not even John himself, 
knew that it was Jesus of Nazareth that was thus declared the 
Son of God. The next day John and Andrew, one a near relative 
and both, no doubt, familiar acquaintances of Jesus, were the first 
to identify him, who had been the day before signally declared 
the Christ, as Jesus of Nazareth. The record says: "Again, on 
the morrow, John was standing, and two of his disciples; and he 
looked upon Jesus as he walked, and saith. Behold, the Lamb of 
God, and the two disciples heard him speak and they followed 
Jesus." This shows it was a spontaneous exclamation of John as 
his eye fell upon him whom, the day before, he had publicly 
declared the Son of God; a remark addressed no more to the two 
disciples than to others who may have stood near. Thus these two 
persons, John and Andrew, who had from early life been the 
companions of Jesus, were the first to know and to make known 
that he whom John, now three days in succession, had declared 
to be the Christ, was Jesus of Nazareth. Here the mission of 
Jesus as the Messiah begins. John and Andrew followed after 
Jesus, being desirous of speaking to him, for, as nothing had been 
heard of him in his own neighborhood since his baptism, they 
were eager to learn from him where he was staying, in order to 
report to his friends in Galilee. We do not know that they com- 
prehended at first what John meant by Lamb of God ; but the inter- 
view they had with Jesus in the place where he dwelt brought 
them to a sudden but sure belief in his character as the Messiah. 
It appears that Andrew does not sleep before seeking Peter, and 
when he finds him, note his words. He does not say, "We have 
found Jesus," who, no doubt, was the object of their search, but 
" We have found the Messiah." And he brought him to Jesus. 
Now, if Andrew made no explanation, it must have been a 
great surprise to Peter to find, when led to where Jesus abode, that 
the Messiah alluded to by Andrew was none other than Jesus, 
whom they were seeking. How thoroughly social was the compli- 
ment of Jesus on this occasion, as if to say, you shall also have a 
new name : " Thou art Simon . . . thou shalt be called Cephas." 
Stone was a term of much consequence in prophecy. 



THE MESSIAH REVEALED 29 

We observe here what is commonly called the beginning of our 
Lord's ministry. How very private and apparently accidental it 
was. A few of his old acquaintances, as soon as they learned 
that he was the person pointed out as the Christ, gathered volun- 
tarily around him, John and Andrew providentially first. Peter, 
just as soon as he learns where he is, comes also. During the 
ensuing night reference, no doubt, was made to the wedding that 
was to occur at Cana, and that the friends of Jesus there were 
anxious that he should be present. We know that when morning 
came it was the purpose of Jesus to go into Galilee. It seems that 
Philip of Bethsaida and Nathanael of Cana, where the wedding 
was to be, were also about the Jordan. Jesus himself finds 
Philip; and Philip finds Nathanael. What a party, and how 
extempore it was! Never possibly before was there a more un- 
expected and enrapturing surprise than when the five Galileans 
found themselves with Jesus, returning with him to their homes, 
knowing that he was the Messiah, the only persons, probably, save 
John the Baptist, who knew at the time who it was that had been 
thus revealed. 



CHAPTER VIII 

JESUS AND HIS ACQUAINTANCES UP TO THE TIME HE WAS DESIGNATED 
BY JOHN TO THE PEOPLE AS THE SON OF GOD 

Family Connections 

Our Lord's public ministry has its beginning, as commonly 
understood, from the time of his baptism. But in order to a 
better understanding of the character of this early part of his min- 
istry we must review what is known, or may be inferred, concern- 
ing his family and his relations to society. 

We see the family as they came from Egypt, arriving in Nazareth 
instead of Bethlehem, Jesus being in his third, possibly his fourth, 
year. Mary has a sister, Salome, who has married an enterprising 
young man, Zebedee by name. They have two boys, James and 
John. These families, thus nearly related to each other and being 
of like tastes and character, must have been a great deal together. 

Of this early time it is said of Jesus (Luke 2 : 40), "And the 
child grew, , . filled with wisdom." It is easy to presume that he 
was the pride of both families. 

When we think that Salome was one of those women who after- 
ward followed Christ, and attended him in his itinerant ministry, 
it may be inferred that she had a high regard for Mary's son, 
even from the time he came out of Egypt. In that yearly attend- 
ance on the Passover in Jerusalem, the two families no doubt 
went together. Hence when, on one of these occasions, Jesus 
was missing, we have the statement of Luke 2 : 44, " They sought 
for him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance," we almost know 
that Salome and Zebedee were present, and their children, James 
and John, also. 

But Zebedee became interested in the fishing business; and, in 
time, he had his home in Bethsaida; there also resided his partner, 
Jonas, who, like Zebedee, had two sons, Peter and Andrew. 

The four boys grew up together in the fishing business. The 
family of Jonas could not have been intimate with that of Zebedee 
without also becoming familiar with the family of Joseph and 
Mary. 

We assume that Mary practised a severe exclusiveness in her 
associations, but general exclusiveness implies close intimacy with 

30 



EARLY ACQUAINTANCES 31 

a few; thus her general exclusiveness made the two families of 
Mary and Salome practically one. This made Mary's children 
familiar with all the associates of Salome's children. Thus, in- 
evitably, the children of these three families, of Joseph, Zebedee, 
and Jonas, were associated as a select company, and we must 
not fail to connect certain others with them. We here quote 
from Canon Farrar: 

" If the home of Zebedee was in, or near, Bethsaida, his two 
sons, John and James, must have grown up in constant intercourse 
with Philip and Andrew and Peter, and with Nathanael of Cana." 
Here is our point: if these four, Peter, Andrew, Philip, and Na- 
thanael :were in constant intercourse with the sons of Salome, 
they must have had familiar acquaintance with the sons of Joseph 
and Mary. And here we may add an item to what we have 
stated above. 

Early Acquaintances 

It is fair to suppose that all these five boys, named by Canon 
Farrar, were in company with Jesus when, at the age of twelve, 
he went up to Jerusalem. All these persons who afterward be- 
came the notable champions of the Cross were doubtless the early 
associates of Jesus. Often coming into contact with him, they 
must have felt the sweet influence of his company, and have 
become ennobled in all their aspirations. Indeed, says the canon, 
" they were waiting for the consolation of Israel " : without a 
thought, however, that the affair of such moment was to devolve 
on their mutual associate whose home was mainly in Nazareth. 

As time wore on, and the great events of prophecy were begin- 
ning to have their fulfilment in the preaching and baptizing of 
John, there were none, probably, to watch the progress of this 
work with greater interest than did this select company of Jesus' 
friends. At length, being full of the belief which was requisite, 
it must have become a subject of consideration among them, 
whether they themselves ought not to make the journey to Jordan 
unto John to be baptized by him. We do not much doubt that 
Salome, the mother of James and John, led in this way of thinking 
on behalf of the young men. We can imagine some reserve on the 
part of Mary and Jesus. 

The way, as we see it, is that when the rest were ready to 
start, Jesus was ready to go with them. The divine record names 
only Jesus; but they, who must have been his early companions, 



32 THE EARLY LIFE OF JESUS 

were afterward chosen as his first special disciples. They must 
have been baptized some time. And it is, no doubt, a just inference 
that they were in company with Jesus, and went to the Jordan 
to be baptized when he went; or, as we have said, he went when 
they went. We behold them in imagination, Jesus and the com- 
panions with whom he had grown up, starting off and moving 
toward those lower waters of the Jordan, glad to make the 
journey, for their heart was in it. 

The Opening of the Public Ministry 

On their arrival at Bethany they were baptized. There was 
nothing apparent to spectators in their baptism which differed 
from the baptism of others. But in connection with one of them, 
John saw what he had been looking for from the beginning, the 
sign of the Holy Spirit descending upon him and abiding. How 
this was seen by the Baptist and not by the people, we do not 
know. The baptism followed, and more, that prayer of Jesus, 
the heavens opening, and the Voice! John knew it was the 
Messiah. He could at that time have testified to the people, but 
he did not. And this is all we know of that scene. Jesus is gone. 

He appears to have returned at once to Galilee (Luke 4:1), 
no doubt the rest of the company with him. But he is scarcely 
seen there before he is taken away into the wilderness. We can 
only imagine what surprise and anxiety to his family and friends 
must have followed his absence. We know that a wedding was in 
anticipation. It was to be in Cana; this place being situated be- 
tween Nazareth and Bethsaida, right in the line of Mary's kindred 
and acquaintance. The wedding must have been in one of the few 
families embraced in her exclusiveness. We judge so from the 
fact that, jvhen the wedding came, she seems to have acted as 
hostess for the occasion. And it is natural to infer that Salome, 
her sister of Bethsaida, was prominent among the guests. We 
know a few who were invited; Jesus, of course; and we think the 
family of the bride, which gave the entertainment, relied more 
on Jesus being a guest than any other person. We know John 
was among the invited ; James may have been so intimate with the 
family as to need no invitation. Peter and Andrew were invited, 
and Philip, making five from Bethsaida, and Nathanael also was 
to be at the wedding. His home was at Cana; no doubt he be- 
longed to the choice circle of friends of the wedded pair. We 
imagine the feeling, general, as the occasion drew near, that it was 



EARLY ACQUAINTANCES 33 



not to pass without Jesus being with them. We think that Salome 
had become so appreciative of his worth that she was perhaps 
more anxious for his return than ,were any of the rest. She 
first may have formed the idea that some effort should be taken 
to ascertain what had become of the friend that was most prized 
among them. We may as well suppose that Peter was not slow to 
second the idea with action. Perhaps some of Jesus' old associates 
were already back at the Jordan, and as the time for the marriage 
approached (possibly already postponed), Nathanael, who resided 
at Cana, with perhaps Philip and Andrew, concluded to go to find 
the others, and consult with them as to what can be done in the 
matter of finding the friend they all are concerned for. They 
probably get together at or near Bethany, talk over the subject, 
and separate, one going to one point for inquiry and one to 
another. 

Such is the situation when the messengers of the Jews arrive, 
and John the Baptist is responding to their questions; and before 
this interview closes, Jesus, having returned from the scenes of 
temptation, is noticed by John while addressing the deputation. 
Now the very party in search of Jesus may have been in the 
assembly, but could have had no thought that it was of their 
friend that he spoke. So that this was of no assistance to them in 
the discovery of Jesus. And on the next day, when John saw Jesus 
coming to him, and said, " This is he," and went on to state how 
he knew it, whatever amount of sensation it may have occasioned, 
and though our party from Galilee participated in it, they may 
have been so situated as not to have gained a fair view of his per- 
son, and thus may have still been unaware who he was of whom 
John spoke. But the next day they knew. Yes, the next day was 
memorable as the time when first any mortal on earth knew that the 
person pointed out by John as the Messiah was Jesus of Nazareth. 
Those two early associates of his, John and Andrew, were the 
first of all men to know this. Notice the narrative in John 
I • 35> 36* "Again, on the morrow,, John (baptizer) was stand- 
ing, and two of his disciples'* (that is, two who had been bap- 
tized by him.) They were John and Andrew. Just at this time the 
baptizer sees the man whom he had pointed out the day before 
as he was walking by, and says, " Behold the Lamb of God ! " 
John and Andrew know it is the friend they are seeking. Their 
astonishment is great, yet they conclude to follow him, and per- 
haps speak to him. As we may well suppose, they hesitated how 



34 THE EARLY LIFE OF JESUS 

to act, being thus suddenly brought to the knowledge of his true 
character. Jesus, turning and seeing them, relieves them from all 
embarrassment by the simple question, " What seek ye ? " They 
tell him precisely (what they and all their friends in Galilee are 
anxious to know) when they ask, "Rabbi, where abidest thou?" 
Though he had been proclaimed the Son of God, yet his answer 
assures them of no change in the social relations between them 
and himself. How full of pleasing assurance the answer ! " Come, 
and ye shall see." He is friend and fellow, companion with 
them still. 

But this meeting and interview so far does not properly belong 
to the new ministry. We see in it only the continuance of the 
social relations which had previously existed. But when he takes 
his two friends to his abode, it is then and there the new ministry 
dawns. Notice there is nothing of a public character about it. 
How free from any demonstration whatever ! An hour of private 
intercourse gives certainty to the words of the Baptist. It is a 
new ministry, indeed, when Jesus reveals himself, though in a 
private interview, to two persons as the Messiah. Knowing the 
interest Peter would take in such a discovery, Andrew does not 
sleep till he finds his brother and brings him to Jesus, and it is 
easy to suppose John returned to the Baptist and made known to 
him who it was that he proclaimed the Son of God, viz., his own 
kinsman, the son of Mary. 

It is interesting to follow on and observe closely the nature 
of this new ministry — " public ministry " — so called. How very 
private and apparently accidental it was ! We see a few of his old 
acquaintances voluntarily gathering around him, John and Andrew 
providentially first, Peter, as soon as he learns where he is, comes 
also. During the ensuing night reference no doubt was made 
to the wedding about to occur in Cana, and that the friends of 
Jesus were set upon his being present. We know that when 
morning came, it was his mind to go into Galilee. It seems that 
Phihp, of Bethsaida, and Nathanael, of Cana, were at this time 
also near-by (all probably making it a point to learn what had 
become of Jesus). Jesus himself finds Philip, and Philip goes after 
Nathanael. What a party! And all, like Nathanael, certain it 
was the Christ. And how extempore it was. Never, probably, on 
earth was there a more unexpected and enrapturing surprise than 
when these five Galileans found themselves with Jesus, going back 
with him to their homes, knowing that he was the Messiah. 



EARLY ACQUAINTANCES 35 



The Wedding at Cana 

This company arrives duly at Cana. Here Jesus, though fresh 
from the Jordan where so lately he had been declared the Messiah, 
continues his distinctively human manner; appearing among his 
home acquaintances at the wedding in the same character in 
which they saw him before he left for the baptism. So far as his 
ministry is concerned, there is no apparent difference from what 
had been, as if the same plan was to continue, namely, without 
apparent seeking of opportunities for the furtherance of his mis- 
sion; it was simply to improve opportunities as they came without 
seeking, as was notably the case at the marriage in Cana. He 
comes before his acquaintances on this occasion in no other 
character than that in which he had been previously known, Jesus, 
the " son of Joseph." His mother no doubt had long awaited the 
time when, in some way, he would assert himself as set forth by 
the shepherds at his birth, a' " Saviour who is Christ the Lord." 
Indeed, it was in reference to this character that the forerunner 
had said in the hearing of John and Andrew, " Behold the Lamb 
of God ! " The kingdom of heaven that John preached had the 
atonement for its substance. The crucifixion was emphatically 
Christ's hour. "Mine hour," he says to his mother (John 2:4), 
" is not yet come." But he can do that which will symbolize that 
hour. " Fill the water-pots with water." They filled them to the 
brim. " Draw out, now." They do it. And there in the flowing 
wine is reflected the shed blood of the Lamb of God. " This 
beginning of his signs did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested 
his glory" (John 2 : 11), and those who lately had heard the 
testimony of John were confirmed .in their belief that Jesus was 
the Saviour of the world. 

Thus the forerunner had done his work, and had done it 
thoroughly. The Messiah had come, had been duly pointed out as 
he came from the temptations; pointed out by John on three suc- 
cessive days. And yet how profoundly unaware was all Judea 
that a man of Galilee ,was the Messiah. Thus Jesus had been 
left to return to his own neighborhood, where dissociated from all 
memory of his birth which had been celebrated by angels, or the 
testimony of Simeon and Anna, or the reverence of the Magi, 
and seemingly independent of any prestige arising from his con- 
nection with his forerunner, there, in the improvement of an 
occasion wholly unintended for the purpose, he was to commence 



36 THE EARLY LIFE OF JESUS 

a career wherein his own works would carry conviction to the 
minds of men who, like Nathanael, should exclaim from the heart, 
" Thou art the Son of God ! " 

Thus it was that the private ministry of the " son of Joseph " 
quietly merged into the public ministry of Jesus, " the Son of 
God." 



CHAPTER IX 

THE BAPTISM OF JESUS : ITS REAL SIGNIFICANCE 

The Baptism 

" Then cometh Jesus unto John to be baptized of him." What 
does this mean? I think it signifies just what was foretold: " Lo, 
I am come; . . I dehght to do thy will, O my God!" (Ps. 
40 : 7, 8.) John himself was doing the will of God when he came 
preaching and baptizing. Every subject of repentance submitted 
to baptism because assured it was God's will that he should do so. 
We call baptism a profession. We may as well say it was a 
declaration. Every one of these first persons baptized declared in 
that rite his determination to do the will of God. Now it was 
preeminently the mission of Christ to do the will of his Father in 
heaven, and this preeminently in the matter of his dying for the 
sinner. When he was baptized it was reiterating what John 
preached, the carrying out of his purpose was at hand. But if so, 
why was not he the first to be baptized? Ah, here we see the 
Christ, our Christ. As those first hearers of John, being renewed 
in their mind, were signifying in baptism their determination to 
do the will of God, lo, Jesus, unknown at the time as the Messiah, 
stands among them as one of them in this matter of doing God's 
will. Here he showed his adorable regard for the believer, setting 
forth that precious sentiment which he afterward stated so ex- 
pressly when, stretching forth his hand toward his disciples, 
he said : " Behold my mother and my brethren ! For whosoever 
shall do the will of my Father who is in heaven, he is my brother, 
and sister, and mother" (Matt. 12 : 49, 50). 

Many, all along through the ages, had been brought, like 
Abraham, into unison with God by believing on the Messiah that 
was to come. John the Baptist aroused the people of his time and 
brought them to repentance by proclaiming the kingdom of heaven 
at hand: which meant that the purpose of God, formed before 
man fell, for a propitiation in the gift of his Son, was about to be 
fulfilled. 

Those who, believing this propitiation, were brought to repent- 
ance, were baptized. This rite was wonderfully appropriate, for it 
symbolized that ^vhereon the kingdom of God rested as its 

37 



38 THE EARLY LIFE OF JESUS 

foundation, namely, the death and resurrection of his Son. This 
very baptism declared in symbol just what John proclaimed, 
"The kingdom of heaven is at hand" (Matt. 3:2). 

Thus too, all the people of Judea, so to speak, had come to 
his baptism. At length they were coming from Galilee, Jesus of 
Nazareth among them. He came just as the rest did. We have 
no right to suppose that baptism in his case meant, required, or 
symbolized anything more or anything less than it did in the case 
of the rest. And here we come to an important help to a correct 
understanding of baptism. For whatever we affirm as to the im- 
port of baptism, or qualifications for it, must apply alike to 
Jesus of Nazareth and to all others. 

The Significance of Baptism 

The common teaching that baptism denotes a cleansing or 
washing away of spiritual defilement is gratuitous, as such a 
view makes the baptism of Jesus unseemly. And we repeat, 
whatever significance we give to baptism should apply to Jesus 
as well as to others who submitted to the rite. We may 
boldly state that baptism was not intended to denote any process 
of purification previously or at the time going on. Here it 
differed from all the rites instituted under Moses. There were 
washings, but baptism was no such thing. Acts 22 : 16 is quoted, 
" Arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on 
his name." Now, according to those words, how are sins washed 
away? Not by baptism, but by calling on God and receiving 
forgiveness. Baptism no more means a washing than laying a 
man in his grave means a washing. 

Again, Titus 3 : 5 is quoted : " He saved us through the wash- 
ing of regeneration." Does it say here that baptism is a washing? 
No; nothing like it. It says regeneration is a washing. What 
about this? The Holy Spirit renews, being poured out on us 
richly, through Jesus Christ our Saviour. There is no allusion 
to the rite of baptism. 

Here it may be asked, how could baptism as administered to 
Jesus be called the baptism of repentance? In reply we need 
only consider what the inspired Greek word, '' metanoia," meant. 
It was the baptism into the new mind, the right mind toward 
God, a mind such as Jesus had, a mind to do the will of 
God. And do we suppose John baptized any person unless 
with the understanding that he had this mind? We can almost 



MEANING OF THE BAPTISM 39 

hear John putting the question, " Why do you come for bap- 
tism ? " Can we conceive any answer more appropriate and 
comprehensive than this, " I am determined to do God's will " ? 
Would not that show the new mind, the right mind, the mind of 
Christ, indeed? Now Jesus, in coming to the baptism, virtually 
declares himself one of those determined to do the will of 
his Father in heaven. And herein is the pure qualification for 
baptism. Thus when Jesus was baptized, he declared his own 
death and resurrection at hand. As the kingdom of heaven has 
its foundation in the death and resurrection of Christ, every 
baptism repeats the declaration of John as noted above, " The 
kingdom of heaven is at hand." 

It is quite obvious that Jesus was not baptized by way of setting 
an example to others. Doctor Broadus says, " Here, the first time 
in his gospel, our Lord presents an example to us." But if we 
should ask a candidate why he feels it his duty to be baptized, and 
he should say, " Because Christ was baptized and I want to 
follow his example," it would be a spurious reason. Christ's 
incidental acts are no law for us. We must discover in the candi- 
date the desire to obey God, do his will, as Christ himself ex- 
pressed it, " fulfil all righteousness." Possibly here Paul detected 
a fault in that certain twelve he found at Ephesus. (Acts 19 : 1-7.) 
" Into John's baptism " may have meant by way of doing as his, 
John's, disciples did. It is plain that the thousands who were 
baptized before Christ could not have been following Christ's 
example. If we are to say anything about example, it would be 
the other way. The Galileans, and Jesus with them, followed the 
example of the Judeans. We might say John first baptized the 
people of Judea, and ever since people have been following their 
example as Jesus did. Again, if one is baptized because some- 
body else was, as one's father or mother, for instance, we know 
the reason is not valid. 

When Jesus joined the people who were being baptized, it was 
to be numbered with those who were thus signifying their determi- 
nation to do the will of God; himself preeminently so determined, 
even to the death which his baptism symbolized. Now truly he 
could say, " I am one with you when it comes to doing God's will." 

This very bent of mind, we think, he declared in his baptism. 
Therefore let it be known and remembered as one of the precious 
truths of the gospel, that Jesus, in his baptism, declares with the 
utmost tenderness to every company of believers banded together 



40 THE EARLY LIFE OF JESUS 

as a church : " I belong to your communion. I am one with you. 
My name is with yours on the record which is kept by the Holy 
Spirit." 

Jesus is with us in the character of the Comforter, as he prom- 
ised. Therefore he could say (Matt. 28 : 20), " Lo, I am with 
you always, even unto the end of the world." We think the 
true idea is that he is virtually with us just as he was with his 
disciples on that occasion when, two days before the Passover, 
he was making his farewell discourse to them, the last hour he 
was in Bethany. He was found speaking to them, " as friends " ; 
and he explains, in John 15 : 15: "No longer do I call you 
servants, . . but I have called you friends, for all things that I 
heard from my Father I have made known unto you." May 
we not suppose that his baptism, occurring as it did, augured 
this very state of things; and that in our church relations he is 
with us as an elder brother, a real friend, ever ready to hear 
our desires, assist us with his counsel, and tell us just what to 
do? It appears to be the very office of the Comforter to create 
this relation between the Lord Jesus and his flock, during his per- 
sonal absence. 

We cannot close without recalling the words of Matthew 3 : 15: 
*' Jesus answering said unto him. Suffer it now," not, as an ex- 
positor says, that I take the position of inferiority to thee, but 
that I take the position in common with all the people who are 
being baptized; suffer me to be baptized as one of the rest in 
obedience to the will of God; in full belief with them that the 
kingdom of God is at hand. The heavens opened and the voice 
which he heard implied this very significance in his baptism, God 
taking pleasure in the transaction which may be regarded as a 
renewal of his pledge to obedience, his obedience even unto his 
death upon the cross. 



Part Second 
The Passion Week 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introductory: Outline Harmony of Passion Week 43 

Chapter 

I. Palm Sunday. The Triumphal Entry 45 

II. Too Much Harmonizing by Expositors 51 

III. How Many Suppers at Bethany? 56 

IV. The Two Days Previous to the Passover 68 

V. Significance of the Words^ "'Arise^ Let us go Hence '' 76 

VI. The " Lost Wednesday " 80 

VII. " But John Says Judas Went Out " 82 

VIII. Whether Judas Partook or Not: Its Relation to 

Other Questions 84 



OUTLINE HARMONY OF PASSION WEEK 

INTRODUCTORY 

1. Friday: The Blind Men Near Jericho. 

Matt. 20: 29-34, Mark 10: 46-52. Luke 18: 35-43. 

2. Friday: Visit to Zacchaeus. Luke 19: i-io, 

3. Friday: Parable of the Minas. Luke 19: 11-28. 

4. Friday Evening: Anointing of Jesus by Mary of Bethany. John 11: 55 to 12: 

II. 

PASSION WEEK 

5. Saturday: The Public Entry. 

Matt. 21 : i-ii. Mark II : i-ii. Luke 19: 29-44. John 12: 12-19. 

6. Saturday: Greeks Seeking Jesus. John 12: 20-36. 

7. Saturday: The Jews' Rejection of Jesus. John 12: 37-50. 

8. Sunday: Blighting of the Fig Tree. 

Matt. 21: 18, 19. Mark 11: 12-14. 

9. Sunday: Cleansing of the Temple. 

Matt. 21: 12-17. Mark 11: 15-19. Luke 19: 45-48. 

ID. Monday: The Fig Tree Withered. 

Matt. 21 : 20-22. Mark II : 20-25. 

11. Monday: Jesus' Authority Challenged. 

Matt. 21 : 23-27. Mark 11 : 27-33. Luke 20: 1-8. 

12. Monday: Three Parables of Warning. 

Matt. 21: 28 to Mark 12: 1-12. Luke 20: 9-19, 
22: 14, 

13. Monday: Three Questions by the Jewish Rulers, 

Matt. 22: 15-40, Mark 12: 13-34. Luke 20: 20-40. 

14. Monday: Jesus' Unanswerable Question. 

Matt. 22: 41-46, Mark 12: 35-37. Luke 20: 41-44. 

15. Tuesday: Woes Against the Scribes and Pharisees, 

Matt. 23: 1-39, Mark 12: 38-40, Luke 20: 45-47. 

16. Tuesday: The Widow's Two Mites. 

Mark 12: 41-44. Luke 21 : 1-4. 

17. Tuesday: The Desolation of Jerusalem, and End of Age. 

Matt, 24, 25. Mark 13, Luke 21 : 5-38, 

18. Tuesday Evening: Jesus' Further Prediction; His Crucifixion Plotted. 

Matt. 26: 1-5. Marki4:i,2. Luke22:i,2, John 13: i. 

43 



44 PASSION W'^EK 



19. Tuesday Evening: Jesus Anointed in the House of Simon. 

Matt. 26: 6-13. Mark 14: 3-9. 

20. Tuesday Evening: Jesus Washing the Disciples' Feet. John 13: 2-26. 

21. Tuesday Evening: Judas Goes Out and Bargains for Betrayal. 

Matt. 26: 14-16. Mark 14: 10,11. Luke 22: 3-6. John 13: 27-30. 

22. Tuesday Evening: The Son of Man Glorified. John 13: 31-38. 

23. Tuesday Evening: Jesus' Departure; Promise of the Comforter. 

John 14: 1-31. 

24. Wednesday: Abiding Union of Jesus and His Disciples. John 15: 1-27. 

25. Wednesday: Persecution Foretold. John 16: 1-33. 

26. Wednesday: The Intercessory Prayer. John 17: 1-26. 

27. Thursday: Preparation for the Passover. 

Matt. 26: 17-19. Mark 14: 12-16. Luke 22: 7-13. 

28. Thursday Evening: The Passover Supper; The Betrayer Designated. 

Matt. 26: 20-25. Mark 14: 17-21. Luke 22: 14-18, 

21-30. 

29. Thursday Evening: The Lord's Supper Instituted. 

Matt. 26: 26-30. Mark 14: 22-26. Luke 22: 19, 20. (i Cor. 11: 23-26.) 

30. Thursday Night: Dispersion of the Twelve Announced; Peter's Denial. 

Matt. 26: 31-35. Mark 14: 27-31. Luke 22: 31-38. John 18: i. 

31. Friday: The Agony in Gethsemane. 

Matt. 26: 36-46. Mark 14: 32-42. Luke 22: 39-46. 

32. Friday: Betrayal and Arrest. 

Matt. 26: 47-56. Mark 14: 43-52. Luke 22: 47-53. John 18: 2-11. 

Note. The discussions of Part Second not extending beyond the events of 
Friday, this Harmony ends with the Betrayal and Arrest. 



CHAPTER I 

PALM SUNDAY. THE TRIUMPHAL ENTRY 

The Terseness of Gospel Records 

Few readers realize how many and varied events, and how 
large a part of the teachings of Jesus belong to that interval of 
time between his triumphal entry into Jerusalem and the hour 
when, having left the temple for the last time and ended all his 
sayings on Olivet, according to Matthew and Mark, he arrived 
with his disciples at the house of Simon the leper, in Bethany. 
One may well be surprised at the amount of gospel record given 
to this space of time, when he considers how; short the space must 
have been. 

As to what occurred on the day of entrance, aside from the 
entrance itself, the account in Mark ii : ii is brief: "And 
he entered into Jerusalem, into the temple; and when he had 
looked round about upon all things, it being now eventide, he went 
out unto Bethany with the twelve." 

The discourse attendant on the Greeks' wishing to see Jesus and 
his rejection by the Jews (John 12 : 20-50) was probably on 
that first day that Jesus entered the temple. All that is embraced 
in the remaining part of the record commences, ,we think, with 
the day after the triumphal entry. 

Was the Triumphal Entry on Sunday? 

It is claimed that the triumphal entry was on Sunday; it is also 
generally conceded that it was on the ensuing Tuesday that 
Jesus left the temple for the last time. Hence the time given for 
all those events and all the teachings above referred to, not 
including what occurred on the day of entrance, is from Monday 
morning to the night of the next day. 

We were led to question as to this short space of time by an 
expression which Mark subsequently (11 : 19) makes in closing 
up the account of a day's proceedings, " And every evening ( Greek, 
whenever evening came) he went forth out of the city." Such an 
expression seems to be made in order to avoid repeating afterward 
how at night he left the city. 

45 



46 PASSION WEEK 



But Mark has already said that on the night before he went out 
to Bethany : " It being now eventide, he went out unto Bethany 
with the twelve" (ii : ii). If that night :was Sunday, then 
this was Monday, and there was no subsequent day when Jesus, 
"it being now eventide," left the city; for on the next day, 
Tuesday (his last in the temple), he must have left long before 
night, in order to give time for all those sayings as he sat on 
Olivet. Hear also Luke 19 : 47, " And he was teaching daily in 
the temple." How can any reader, especially an expositor, be 
content to make this expression apply to a duration of time 
extending only from one morning to the evening of the next day? 
Hear Luke again (20 : i) : "And it came to pass, on one of the 
days, as he was teaching the people in the temple, and preaching 
the gospel ..." 

Does this language imply or even admit of the construction 
that the whole number of days was scarcely two? As Mark 
had previously spoken of their going back to Bethany the night 
of the triumphal entry, why should Luke (21 : 37), now say, 
" And every night he went out and lodged in the mount that is 
called the Mount of Olives," if he meant only one night more, 
namely, Monday? The whole trend of the discussion by both 
Mark and Luke points to a longer time spent in the temple teach- 
ing than from Monday morning to Tuesday afternoon. 

After going on further and further with his narrative, note how, 
Luke (21 : 2)7, 38) finishes: "And every day he was teaching 
in the temple; and every night he went out, and lodged in the 
mount that is called the Mount of Olives. And all the people came 
early in the morning to him in the temple to hear him." Jesus 
himself said, " I sat daily with you in the temple teaching " 
(Matt. 26 : 55; Mark 14 : 49; Luke 22 : 53). 

But where lies the necessity for supposing the time was thus 
limited? It lies in the one premise, namely, that the triumphal 
entry was on Sunday. But there appears to be no Scriptural 
warrant for this premise. On the contrary the inspired narrative 
shows quite clearly the reverse, that the premise is false. John 
(12 : i) says, "Jesus therefore, six days before the passover, 
came to Bethany." Every expositor within our reach says this 
must have been on Friday. It is in harmony with the other 
Gospels to say Jesus had come from Jericho the morning of that 
day. Then John (12 : 2) continues, "So they made him a supper 
there," ("deipnon/' it was probably a late dinner). Has any 



THE TRIUMPHAL ENTRY 47 

one the right to tell us it was on any other day than Friday; or, 
to confound it with a night repast at Simon's the week after? 
Having related the incident attendant on that supper, John pro- 
ceeds (12 : 12) to say: "On the morrow," here bringing in his 
account of the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem. Now we 
do not have to harmonize this statement with anything the other 
Gospel writers tell us, for not one of them has a word to say of 
this arrival of Jesus at Bethany and his reception there. We are 
obliged to take the account here for just what it says. According 
to the context, the common reader, and the scholar as well, should 
not allow himself to think for a moment otherwise than that 
" the morrow " means Saturday, if it was on Friday that Jesus 
came to Bethany. But what does John say occurred on " the 
morrow " ? It was that notable entrance into Jerusalem. That 
entrance was then on the Sabbath. The expositors say, indeed, 
that "Jesus rested on the Sabbath at Bethany." But had not the 
Son of man proclaimed himself Lord of the Sabbath by presenting 
himself on that day in Jerusalem as king in Zion? Was it not 
fitting for old and young to fill the air with hosannas, and for a 
glorious prophecy to have its fulfilment on that day jvhich had 
been set apart from the creation of all things for the worship of 
the Creator, Christ himself? Indeed, it is quite possible that when 
Jesus thus entered the city and was so signally the object of 
worship on that Sabbath Day, it was the first time the Sabbath had 
ever been truly kept in Jerusalem. We conceive of nothing more 
fitting than that the distinguished prophecy of Zechariah (9:9), 
" Behold thy king cometh unto thee," should be fulfilled on God's 
holy day. If we find fault with this we may as well adjudge Jesus 
in fault when he avowed himself Lord of the Sabbath. 

No Authority for a Palm Sunday 

Thus the New Testament narratives do not appear to give 
mankind any chance to speak of a *' Palm Sunday." It is plain 
enough that Jesus arrived in Bethany six days before the Pass- 
over. Is it not equally plain that he made his triumphal entry 
over the branches of palm into Jerusalem on the Sabbath, making 
it the Lord's Day, sure enough? The fanciful reader may 
call it Palm Saturday or Palm Sabbath, but how can he say 
" Palm Sunday " without shutting his eyes to the facts ? 

As for what was done on that Sabbath, the adoration of the 
people is certainly prominent. Conjoined with this we should 



48 PASSION WEEK 



probably place the discourses of Jesus, which seem to have 
been induced by the desire of certain Greeks to see Jesus. The 
request appears at once to have taken the mind of Jesus to the 
great central event in the ,work of redemption; and it led him 
in the discourse that followed, to intimate that he would soon be 
lifted up where all could see him. It was a tender association, a 
blessed day, that Sabbath in Jerusalem. 

It was on the next day, doubtless Sunday, that Jesus came 
early from Bethany, even before breakfast, to Jerusalem, and 
evidently on business. When he went into the temple it was 
not simply to look around on all things and preach as he did 
the day before and then leave. It was real work when he pro- 
ceeded to cleanse that temple. He was there early, to have this 
done as soon as possible, and be ready for the people when they 
gathered. An immense amount of instruction was to be given, 
argument on argument, and controversy on controversy held, the 
great lessons of wisdom in manifold ways to be taught, and he 
had not a moment to lose. We do not know that the whole is 
told us; but what is told as taking place between his entering the 
temple that morning and his arrival at Simon's the next Tuesday 
night occupies about one-tenth of the jvhole record of the public 
ministry of Jesus. We have no disposition, and probably no right, 
to assign so large a part of the record to barely two days and 
an intervening night. It could not have been less than three days 
and two intervening nights. This conclusion we gladly accept; 
and with no regret we leave the theory of a " Palm Sunday " to 
fade forever from the realms of truth. We do not believe that 
Jerusalem ever saw in the days of Christ a " Palm Sunday." 

NOTE. SEVEN CHANGES SECURE COMPLETE HARMONY 
(Prepared by the Editors) 

Doctor Whitman proposes seven changes from the order of later 
harmonists, such as Stevens and Burton, Doctor Broadus, G. W. 
Clark, and Robinson-Riddle. 

1. To place the Supper at the home of Martha and Mary Fri- 
day night, as recorded by John, ii : 55 to 12 : ii. 

2. To place the Triumphal Entry on Saturday, Jewish Sabbath, 
as recorded by John, 12 : 12-19. 

3. To place the Supper at the house of Simon the leper on 
Tuesday night, as recorded by Matthew 26 : 6-13, and Mark 
14 : 3-9- 



THE TRIUMPHAL ENTRY 49 

4. To place the Washing of the Disciples' Feet on the same 
Tuesday night, at the same place ; Jesus " riseth from supper " ; 
John 13 : 2-26. 

5. To place the account of Judas Bargaining for Betrayal 
Tuesday night, as recorded by the four evangelists. 

6. To place Jesus' Teaching, recorded by John 13 : 31 to 14 : 31, 
ending with the words, ''Arise, let us go hence," Tuesday night. 

7. To place John 15, 16, and 17, Wednesday, place unknown. 
This arrangement removes all conflicts and discrepancies in the 

four accounts of Passion week, and requires no explanations. It 
follows the accounts of all four evangelists without transposition. 

ONE OF THE SERIOUS DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED BY RECENT WRITERS 

Most recent writers have held that there was but one supper 
with anointing during Passion week. Their conclusions, however, 
vary rather astonishingly, as may be seen from the classified lists 
herewith. The reasons given are equally divergent, as will appear 
from the perusal of some excerpts found in note to chapter III 
following : 

One Supper, Friday Night 

W. E. Barton, " Jesus of Nazareth." 
W. J. Dawson, " The Life of Christ." 
Marcus Dods, " The Life of St. John." 
Rush Rhees, "The Life of Jesus of Nazareth." 
William Sanday, " Outlines of the Life of Christ." 
Stevens and Burton, " Harmony of the Gospels." '• 
Bernhard Weiss, " The Life of Christ." 

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown, " Commentary on Old and New Testa- 
ments." 

One Supper, Saturday Night 

S. J. Andrews, " The Life of Our Lord." 

Burton and Mathews, " Constructive Studies in the Life of 
Christ." 
Alfred Edersheim, " Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah." 
Canon Farrar, " The Life of Christ." 
G. H. Gilbert, " The Student's Life of Jesus." 
P. A. Nordell, " Bible Studies." 
M. B. Riddle, " Outline Harmony of the Gospels." 
Robinson-Riddle, " English Harmony of the Gospels." 

1 See quotation in note to Chapter III following. 



50 PASSION WEEK 



One Supper, Tuesday Night 

John A. Broadus, "A Harmony of the Gospels." 

C. Geikie. 

H. B. Hackett. 

J. B. McClellan. 

Newcome. 

William Pittenger, " The Interwoven Gospels." 

One Supper, Wednesday Night 

George W. Clark, " English Harmony of the Gospels." 
Edward Robinson, "English Harmony of the Gospels." 

Tzvo Stoppers, Friday and Tuesday Nights 

Origen, second century. 

Chrysostom, third century. 

John Fleetwood, " Life of Christ," 1850. 

Adam Clarke. 

John Clericus. 

J. B. Lightfoot. 

James McKnight. 

Daniel Whitby. 

Lyman Abbott, "Jesus of Nazareth." 

Giovanni Resadi, " The Trial of Jesus." 



CHAPTER II 

TOO MUCH HARMONIZING BY EXPOSITORS 

Lack of Agreement Among Expositors 

The story of Jesus' life in the Gospels is full of interest. 
The more one studies it, the more he wants to learn. It is 
fathomless in its wealth. Though the product of four minds or 
more, it is a single story. Many of its incidents are told by 
more than one writer; and when studied comparatively, questions 
arise how to adjust apparent conflicts. 

Expositors and harmonists have, from time to time, given the 
results of their studies, but on certain points they are not agreed. 

A writer for a weekly paper, treating on the fig tree that our 
Lord blighted (Mark ii : 13), evidently blends it with the parable 
of the Fig Tree, by quoting the words : " Behold these three years 
I come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and find none ; cut it down " 
(Luke 13 : 7). _ ^ ^ 

Now this writer is simply thoughtless in his mistake. It is 
altogether different when a learned expositor falls into the same 
kind of error with two passages of Scripture under examination, 
which have some points of similarity, and decides that changes 
are essential to Gospel harmony. 

This tendency prevails especially in the review of the Passion 
week of our Lord. John's introduction of this eventful period, 
in chapter 12 : 1-3, is so explicit that no one, we should suppose, 
would undertake to change it: "Jesus therefore, six days before 
the passover, came to Bethany where Lazarus was, whom Jesus 
raised from the dead. So they made him a supper there; and 
Martha served; but Lazarus was one of them that sat at meat 
with him. Mary therefore took a pound of ointment of pure nard, 
very precious, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet 
with her hair; and the house was filled with the odour of the 
ointment.'* This is described as occurring before the triumphal 
entry. 

Jesus' ministry day after day in the temple followed ; then those 
remarkable lessons to the disciples as he sat on the mount, at the 
close of which Jesus says (Matt. 26 : 2), "Ye know that after 

SI 



52 PASSION WEEK 



two days the passover cometh." Matthew, having given an 
account of all this, proceeds to relate (26 : 6, 7) how Jesus was 
in Bethany at the house of Simon the leper, and that while there, 
as he sat at meat, there came unto him a woman having an 
alabaster box of very precious ointment and poured it on his head. 
Is there, in fact, any real reason for trying to harmonize these 
two anointings reported as occurring respectively on Friday and 
Tuesday evenings? We give the comment of Canon Farrar in 
connection with the occasion six days before the Passover (John 
12 : i) : "* So they made him a supper there; and Martha served.' 
Saint Matthew and Saint Mark say a little mysteriously that this 
feast was given at the house of Simon the leper." 

The mystery to us is, that the Canon does not see that neither 
Matthew nor Mark has anything to say of a " feast." They 
incidentally bring in the clause, " as he sat at meat." 

Are not Matthew and Mark describing what occurred after 
the triumphal entry, after all our Lord's ministry in the temple; 
while the supper made for Jesus, about which the Canon is 
writing, was before these events? 

Hear what another harmonist, William Pittenger, in "Inter- 
woven Gospels," says on Matthew 26: 6: "'Now when Jesus 
was in Bethany at the house of Simon the leper.' John seems to 
place the supper at Bethany, some days earlier when Jesus arrived 
at that town, at his first coming to the Passover. Matthew and 
Mark place it here in connection with the treason of Judas. We 
prefer this for internal reasons. Harmonists are divided." 

Another eminent expositor, Doctor Broadus, is equally surprising 
in his comment on Matthew 26 : 7 : " There came unto him a 
.woman having an alabaster cruse of exceeding precious ointment, 
and she poured it upon his head." His comment is : " John makes 
the apparently conflicting statement that she anointed the feet." 
This author also assumes that the two suppers described are the 
same. Farther on, the learned doctor says : " Two different feasts 
of Bethany with a similar anointing and conversation, only three 
or four days apart, are out of the question." 

Why should learned men think it necessary to deny the possi- 
bility of Bethany affording the Saviour more than one supper, or 
that more than one woman in that place which he regarded with 
so much favor, could have loved him and have sought the privi- 
lege of paying a signal honor to his person when conscious that 
his burial was near. * 



TOO MUCH HARMONIZING 53 

Four Anointings Described in the Gospels 

In the Gospels are given four accounts of the anointing of 
Jesus, one by each of the four evangeHsts. 

The first is given by Luke. (7 : 36-50.) This took place in 
Galilee at the house of Simon the Pharisee. A woman who was in 
the city, a sinner, when she knew that Jesus was sitting at meat in 
the Pharisee's house, brought an alabaster cruse of ointment and, 
standing behind at his feet, weeping, she began to wet his feet 
with her tears, and wipe them with the hairs of her head, and 
kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment; a touching 
act of love, repentance, and contrition. It occurred during the 
second period of the Galilean ministry. 

The second anointing is described by John as occurring on 
Friday night preceding Passion week. 

The other two narratives, Matthew 26 : 6-13 and Mark 14 : 
3-9, are so nearly identical, both in language and context, as to 
leave no doubt that they describe the same event, in Bethany, 
at the house of Simon the leper. The preceding verses, as well 
as the following, in both cases indicate that this anointing occurred 
two days before the Passover, namely, on Tuesday evening. But 
there is nothing to indicate that this supper and anointing oc- 
curred on the previous Saturday evening. 

NOTE. JOHN^S ACCOUNT OF ONE ANOINTING. WHEN AND WHERE DID 

IT OCCUR? 
(Prepared by the Editors) 

Before examining John's record of Mary's anointing Jesus at 
Bethany, it seems worth while to consider briefly the sources 
of his knowledge of the facts concerning which he writes. 

John and his brother James were probably cousins of Jesus, and 
thoroughly familiar with his earlier as well as his later life. 

He was one of the first two disciples to follow Jesus, to call 
him Rabbi, and to be invited to his own abode. 

He was one of the Twelve. 

When finally, Jesus, on the cross, saw his own mother and John 
standing by, he said : " Woman, behold, thy son ! Then saith he 
to the disciple, Behold, thy mother! and from that hour the 
disciple took her to his own home" (John 19 : 26, 27). 

She doubtless remained there during the rest of her life, thus 
affording him above all others, opportunity to learn and to 
preserve the record of Jesus' life. 



54 PASSION WEEK 



None of the other disciples, or Gospel writers, had such oppor- 
tunities as John, for his important work, and his Gospel has been 
generally accepted as clearly historical; while those writers who 
have held otherwise, in regard to a few passages, have based their 
opinions, apparently, on difficulties which wholly disappear in the 
harmony presented herewith. 

Jesus' intimate acquaintance with the Lazarus family is evident 
from the accounts of two earlier visits to this home ; which present 
two beautiful pictures of the affectionate and charming relations 
of Jesus to this interesting household ; as well as a reason why he 
should go directly to their home on his final return to Jerusalem. 

One is given in Luke lo : 38-42, where Martha received him 
into her house, and Mary sat at his feet, and heard his word, 
receiving the commendation of having chosen the good part 
which should not be taken away from her. 

The other is found in John 11 : 1-46, and gives a touching and 
most graphic picture, found nowhere else in the Bible, of Jesus' 
kindness and solicitude for this family in bereavement. It was 
in this home, while Lazarus was in the tomb, that Jesus wept. 

This visit to the afflicted home in Bethany, and the raising of 
Lazarus, greatly alarmed the chief priests and the Pharisees, and 
led to their decision that it was better, as they put it, for one man 
to die, than for the whole nation to perish. Therefore he walked 
no more openly among the Jews, but departed for Ephraim. 

It was not long, however, before his face was turned again 
toward Jerusalem ; healing the sick, announcing the coming of the 
kingdom, teaching the people, blessing little children, foretelling 
his crucifixion, admonishing and instructing his disciples, every- 
where doing good, until he reached Bethany, and apparently went 
directly to the home from which he had so recently departed. This 
visit thus gave to these friends the first opportunity to show their 
love and gratitude to the Master, for the infinite debt they owed 
him. 

They had every inducement to honor him ; and no possible mani- 
festation of their gratitude was too great, while the time also 
was opportune, immediately on his arrival. 

Let us now examine John's account of the supper and anointing 
as given in the sixteen verses, beginning chapter 11 : 55, and 
ending chapter 12 : 11. 

What inferences can safely be drawn from the above record 
taken as a whole? Why not the following? 



TOO MUCH HARMONIZING 55 

1. That John ii : 55-57, describing what was going on before 
the arrival of Jesus, shows that both the chief priests and the 
Pharisees were seeking him, inquiring if he would not come to 
the feast, and both had commanded that, " if any man knew 
where he was, he should show it, that they might take him." 

2. The verse which follows, 12 : i, tells when Jesus reached 
Bethany, " where Lazarus was," namely, six days before the Pass- 
over, that is, Friday. 

3. That John 12 : 2-8 shows that the supper, which they made 
him, was with the Lazarus family in their own home, and pre- 
sumably on the night of his arrival. 

4. That verse 9, saying : " The common people therefore of the 
Jews " (because of the order previously issued, to report if they 
found Jesus) "learned that he was there" (at Bethany in the 
Lazarus home), "and they came, not for Jesus' sake only, but 
that they might see Lazarus also." 

The word therefore evidently refers back to John 11 : 56, 
57, and these verses, taken in connection .with John 12 : 9, show 
that the supper must have preceded the puhlic entry; the latter 
verse following the account of the supper, referring back to what 
preceded the supper. Before describing the supper, John says 
the Jews were seeking Jesus; after describing the supper, and be- 
fore describing the entry, he says, the common people therefore 
learned that Jesus was there at Bethany, with Lazarus. 

5. That " On the morrow " — after the arrival at Bethany, John 
12 : 12, 13 — the Jewish Sabbath — our Saturday — " a great multi- 
tude that had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was 
coming to Jerusalem, took the branches of palm trees, and :w:ent 
forth to meet him." 

6. That John's account is strictly historical, and should not be 
dismembered; since there is no known case, unless here, where 
he departs from the historical order. 

The record appears natural, simple, complete, accurate. What 
is gained, except confusion, by changing any part of it? 

Additional reasons for placing the public entry on Saturday 
are given elsewhere. 



CHAPTER III 

HOW MANY SUPPERS AT BETHANY? 

One of the Troublesome Questions for Harmonists 

The question whether the Gospel writers describe two suppers 
at Bethany during Passion week or three, has been under dis- 
cussion by Biblical writers for many years, but so far with no 
very satisfactory results. Though the earliest writers seem to 
have taken it for granted that there were three, nearly all of the 
modern expositors assume that there were but two suppers, as 
described by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. 

How to solve the discrepancies has been the difficult question, 
which seems yet unsolved. None of the expositors seems to have 
been wiping to consider seriously, whether, after all, there were 
not really three suppers; two besides the Passover supper. 

They nearly all talk of " the supper," but as to when and where 
it was given there is no unanimity. 

Since no other solution has been found that has received general 
assent, why not accept the other alternative, namely, that there 
were two suppers at Bethany with anointings; or rather, that 
there was one supper and anointing, made specially for Jesus 
(John 12 : 2-8), and that Matthew and Mark probably describe 
another anointing four days later at the home of Simon the leper ? 

John, after describing events in connection with the supper 
made by Martha and Mary, says, " On the morrow . . ." And 
here follows the account of the triumphal entry. 

Let us now pass to the second description of anointing at 
Bethany. It was when Jesus, having left the temple for the last 
time, and finished his sayings on Olivet, said to his disciples, " Ye 
know that after two days the passover cometh, and the Son of 
man is delivered up to be crucified." Here it is Matthew writing, 
and after bringing in what was going on in Jerusalem at this hour, 
he proceeds with his narrative of Jesus and his disciples: "Now 
when Jesus was in Bethany, in the house of Simon the leper, 
there came unto him a woman having an alabaster cruse of exceed- 
ingly precious ointment, and she poured it on his head, as he sat at 
meat" (Matt. 26 : 6,7)» Mark says, "crushed the box" (14 : 3), 
56 



SUPPERS AT BETHANY 5^^' 

John is telling what, according to the record, happened six 
days before the Passover, and the others what happened four 
days later. One happened at the house of Martha; the other at 
the house of Simon the leper; one happened at an ovation, the 
only ovation ever recorded as having been made to our Lord; 
the other at a private occasion, on which it is incidentally 
mentioned that Jesus was reclining at table. The variations in 
the several accounts indicate two different occurrences. In the 
first the anointing is only of the feet, and Judas objects. It is as 
if only a part of the pound had been used, and he proposed that 
there should be no further waste, and that the rest be kept 
for the poor. Note the answer, "Jesus therefore said: Suffer 
her to keep it against the day of my burying" (John 12 : 7). 
" Suffer her to keep it." What does "it" mean here, if not part 
of the ointment ? 

Now let us notice the other accounts of Matthew 26 and 
Mark 14, when there came a woman and, crushing the box, 
poured the ointment over the Saviour's head, and the disciples, 
seeing it, were indignant. What did Jesus say here, as the day 
of his burying was approaching? His answer is not the same as 
before, but in perfect agreement with it, supposing it a different 
and later occasion. Here the answer is : " Why trouble ye the 
woman, for she hath wrought a good work upon me . . . for in 
that she poured this ointment on my body, she did it to prepare 
me for burial." Here, apparently, a work is done for which Jesus 
had said on the other occasion the ointment should be spared. 

Points of Agreement and Difference 

NOTE THE TWO POINTS OF AGREEMENT 

1. John says : Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred 
pence ? 

Matthew and Mark make substantially the same statement. 

2. John: For the poor ye have always with you. 
Matthew and Mark make the same statement. 

NOTE NOW THE NINE POINTS OF DISAGREEMENT 

1. Time, John says Friday night. 

Matthew and Mark, Tuesday night. 

2. Place. John says, by implication, Martha's house. 

The others say^ Simon's house. 
£ 



58 



PASSION WEEK 



3. The Person. 

4. The Act. 



t- 



8. /^^w^' Answer. 



John says Mary, sister of Lazarus. 

The others say, a woman (unnamed). 

John says, anointed the feet. 

The others, anointed the head. 

John says, wiped his feet with her hair. 

The others say nothing of such an act. 

John says, Judas objected. 

The others say. The disciples had indignation. 

Mark says. She brake the bottle and poured it 
on his head. 

John says simply, She took the spikenard and 
anointed his feet. 

John says. Suffer her to keep it against the 
day of my burying. 

Matthew and Mark say. Why trouble ye the 
woman, she hath wrought a good work, she 
did it to prepare me for burial. 
9. The two answers are unlike but equally ap- 

propriate. Friday night Jesus could well 
say. Suffer her to keep it against the day of 
my burial. 

Tuesday night, he could well say also, She hath 
anointed my body for the burial. 

Where Was Jesus During Wednesday and Thursday? 

We have the record that Jesus, during Passion week, went every 
night to Bethany (Mount of Olives). Considering the character 
of the Lazarus family, and the relations Jesus sustained thereto, it 
is reasonable to suppose that he lodged every night at Martha's 
house. We are inclined to agree with a .writer who expresses some 
wonder that having his work in the temple, he should be found 
on this fifth night of Passion week at the house of Simon the 
leper. The surprise is increased when we think there should have 
been all this going out to Bethany, the final arrest and trial, the 
crucifixion, entombment, the resurrection, and ascension, and yet 
nevermore a word said of the Lazarus family. Women in con- 
nection with these last scenes are repeatedly spoken of and men- 
tioned by name. It is singular that while Jesus, after his first 
night in Bethany, should continue to make his home there, yet, 
with no further mention of Mary or Martha, we hear presently he 
is at the house of a person heretofore unnamed, Simon the leper. 



SUPPERS AT BETHANY 59 

We must give due weight to what is last said of the Lazarus 
family. The ovation to Jesus at Bethany, six days before the 
Passover, disclosed to the chief priests what a power Lazarus was 
to be in increasing the general belief in Jesus. Accordingly it is 
said they consulted to put Lazarus to death. We know how they 
were resolved on the death of Jesus, but feared to do it on feast- 
days, but the idea seemed to be that they could put Lazarus out of 
the way at once. It is easy to suppose that Martha would be one 
of the first to become aware of their purpose; and what would 
follow? Lazarus would naturally be hurried into some place of 
concealment, nor would the sisters stay behind. They would go 
too. Moreover, it would not be safe for any of them to be seen 
in Bethany. The question, what became of Mary's " pound " of 
ointment, the unused part of which Jesus had said, " Suffer her 
to keep it against the day of my burying," is worth considering. 
If any one doubts that Mary, though fleeing into obscurity, made 
sure that the ointment was used according as Jesus had suggested, 
we do not. Here open two lines of conjecture, both of them 
delightful to think of. One is that Mary, in her hasty flight with 
her brother, leaves the box of precious ointment with a trusty 
sympathizer with her in her love for Jesus ; and she is the woman 
who came to him as he reclined at the table at the house of 
Simon the leper. The other conjecture is that Mary herself did 
the second anointing. If so, she must have done it incognito, and 
could not be spoken of as Mary, but as " a woman." 

We see that Mark's expression (14 : 3), "crushed the box and 
poured the ointment on his head," denotes determination, sure 
work, and haste; giving little time for any one, friend or foe, to 
inspect her person. All this, whether it was Mary or her con- 
federate, or some other Mary, was like that true friend of Jesus, 
certainly a woman, who received the commendation (14 : 9) of 
the Lord: "Wheresoever the gospel shall be preached throughout 
the whole world, that also which this woman hath done shall be 
spoken of for a memorial of her." 

NOTE. NO HARMONY AMONG HARMONISTS 

If Jesus reached Bethany Friday night, and was crucified the 
following Friday, he probably ate seven suppers at Bethany or 
elsewhere. During this period seven suppers are mentioned by 
the evangelists. 



6o PASSION W^EEK 



Matthezv mentions two suppers, one two days before the Pass- 
over (26 : 2-13) ; the other on the first day of Unleavened Bread. 
(26 : 17-29.) 

Mark mentions two suppers, one two days before the feast of 
the Passover (14 : 3-9) ; the other on the first day of Unleavened 
Bread. (14 : 12-25.) 

Luke mentions one supper, on the day of Unleavened Bread. 
(22 : 7-23.) 

John mentions two suppers, one following the day's journey 
from Jericho, and before the Triumphal Entry (12 : 1-8) ; the other 
before the feast of the Passover. (13 : 1-26.) 

Harmonists concur substantially regarding the three accounts of 
the feast of the Passover. The majority agree that but two 
suppers are described: 

The first, in John 12 : 1-8; Matthew 26 : 6-13; and Mark 
14 : 3-9. The second, in John 13 : 1-26; Matthev^^ 26 : 17-29; and 
Mark 14 : 12-25; Luke 22 : 7-23, but are almost wholly at sea as 
to when and where the first supper was held ; and also how to har- 
monize John's account with those of Matthew and Mark. 

They are almost equally discordant in their efforts to harmonize 
John 13 : 1-26 with Matthew's and Mark's accounts of the last 
supper. 

The sole, and really insurmountable, difficulty seems to be the 
effort to harmonize John's two accounts with those of the other 
three. 

Doctor Whitman maintains that three suppers are described, 
namely : 

Friday night, John 12 : 1-8, in the home of Mary and Martha 
and Lazarus. 

Tuesday night, Matthew 26 : 6-13, Mark 14 : 3-9, John 13 : 1-26, 
in the house of Simon the leper. 

Thursday night, Matthew 26 : 17-29, Mark 14 : 12-25, and 
Luke 22 : 7-23, in the upper room. 

After a half-century's increasing discordance whose only result 
seems to be the discrediting of Scripture accuracy, why is it not 
better to return to the prima facie evidence so plainly stated in 
the word of God, and held by such early writers as Origen, 
Chrysostom, and others, and remove thereby practically all the 
difficulties of all the harmonists on this and other vexed questions ? 

If we can, in addition to this, without encountering any serious 
difficulty, except to disregard one or two venerable and sacred 



SUPPERS AT BETHANY 6i 

traditions, place the triumphal entry on Saturday morning, accord- 
ing to the natural interpretation of John 12 : 12, " on the morrow," 
after his arrival at Bethany; and accept the words of Jesus, on 
that memorable Tuesday night, after a wonderful day and night of 
laborious controversy, triumph, and instruction, " Arise, let us 
go hence," at the end of chapter 14, and interpret them in their 
natural, if not their only natural, meaning, by assigning chapters 
15, 16, and 17 to the following Wednesday, we shall not only 
have solved the mystery of the " Lost Wednesday," but also have 
given real meaning to such passages as the following: 

Matthew 26 : 55, I sat daily in the temple teaching, and ye took 
me not. 

Mark 11 : 11, It being now eventide, he went out unto Bethany 
with the twelve. 

Mark 11 : 19, And every evening he went forth out of the city. 

Mark 14 : 49, I was daily .with you in the temple and ye took 
me not. 

Luke 19 : 47, And he was teaching daily in the temple. 

Luke 20 : i, And it came to pass, on one of the days, as he 
was teaching the people in the temple. 

Luke 21 : 37, And every day he was teaching in the temple; 
and every night he went out, and lodged in the mount that is 
called Olivet. 

Luke 22 : 53, When I was daily with you in the temple, ye 
stretched not forth your hands against me. 

Such language seems unexplainable under the commonly accepted 
view, that Jesus' public teaching during Passion week began Mon- 
day morning and ended Tuesday afternoon. 

This interpretation gives four days to Christ's teaching and 
preaching and healing during Passion week, instead of two, as 
generally held, and these narratives occupy nearly one-third of 
the four Gospels devoted to the life and teaching of our Lord. 

The effort to carry the first supper, described by John, over into 
the following week has entirely failed in the estimation of modern 
scholars, apparently. 

The effort to bring the supper described by Matthew and Mark 
back into this week is likely to prove finally quite as unsatisfactory 
a task. 

In connecting the two accounts given by John with those of the 
earlier synoptic writers, the fact seems to have been overlooked 
that the narrative of John contains very little that is found in 



62 PASSION WEEK 



either of the earlier Gospels, and very much that is found in 
neither. There is an apparent exception to this rule in John's 
account of Passion week, but only apparent. Chapters 12 to 19, 
eight in all, contain two hundred and eighty-seven verses. Ac- 
cording to Doctor Broadus' Harmony, but fifty-four of these are 
paralleled by the other narratives, less than one-fifth of the whole ; 
in the Stevens and Burton Harmony, but sixty-one are paralleled, 
a trifle over one-fifth. 

If, however, we could give up the serious task of trying to 
harmonize John's account of the supper at Bethany with Matthew's 
and Mark's accounts of a supper, two days before the Passover, 
and also give up the still more serious task of trying to connect 
John's account of the foot-washing incident, and what follows 
in chapters 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17, with what others describe as 
occurring on the same evening as the Passover, when John him- 
self says it was " before the feast of the passover," we shall 
remove practically all the difficulties with which the harmonists 
have wrestled so long, so inharmoniously, and so inconclusively. 

Even a limited and cursory examination of recent writers on 
the subject will reveal not only the wide diversity of opinion, but 
the tendency toward increased divergence, rather than the con- 
trary. 

Of the six Harmonies consulted : 

The Stevens and Burton Harmony, published in 1907, appears 
to put the combined suppers and anointings on Friday evening, 
though as between Friday and Saturday they do not make the 
statement specific. 

Two, Burton and Mathews, and Robinson-Riddle, on Saturday 
evening, pp. 217 and 182. 

Two, Broadus and Pittenger, on Tuesday evening, pp. 169 
and 193. 

Two, George W. Clark and Edward Robinson, on Wednesday 
evening, pp. 274 and 182. 

Burton and Mathews, in their " Life of Christ," equivalent to a 
harmony, in Notes on John ii : 55 to 12, say: "As Passover fell 
on Thursday, Jesus must have arrived in Bethany on the preceding 
Friday. The supper probably occurred on Saturday, the Jews' 
Sabbath. Verse 2, 'Martha served.' (See Luke 10 : 40.) Yet the 
supper was not in the home of Lazarus, but in that of Simon, 
Lazarus being a guest." 

Dr. Edward Robinson, in his Harmony, first published in 1846, 



SUPPERS AT BETHANY 63 

placed the anointing on Wednesday. In the later edition, published 
in 1886 by Dr. M. B. Riddle, the following language is used: 
"The best solution seems to be as follows: our Lord journeyed 
from Jericho to Bethany on Friday, reaching there in the evening, 
probably about the beginning of the Jewish Sabbath (viz., at 
sunset of Friday). Most of the company from Jericho go on to 
Jerusalem, but he remains at Bethany during the Sabbath. In the 
evening the supper was made, and the anointing by Mary took 
place." " Doctor Robinson places the anointing at Bethany on 
the Wednesday before the crucifixion. His reasons are given 
at this point, and those for accepting the position assigned by 
John are added." 

The following brief excerpts from Doctor Broadus' Commentary 
on Matthew, 26 : 6-13, will sufficiently indicate his point of view 
and conclusion, pp. 518, 519: 

" The great majority of recent writers follow John's order, 
usually without giving reasons. On the other side are Robinson 
(but Riddle otherwise), Hackett, G. W. Clark, McClellan, Geikie, 
and others. It is impossible to settle the question, but the event 
seems to fit much better into the situation presented by Matthew 
and Mark. The notion of Origen and Chrysostom, that there were 
two different feasts of Bethany, with a similar anointing and 
conversation, only three or four days apart, is out of the question. 

" Anointing might certainly take place more than once, being a 
very natural way, according to their customs, of exhibiting rever- 
ential affection. John makes the apparently conflicting statement 
that she * anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped off his feet with her 
hair.' To anoint the head was the more common service of 
friendship or honor, but Mary went further and anointed even his 
feet." 

Pittenger, in his " Interwoven Gospels," published in 1889, says : 
" John seems to place the supper at Bethany some days earlier, 
when Jesus arrived at that town on his first coming up to the 
Passover. Matthew and Mark place it here in connection with the 
treason of Judas. We prefer this for internal reasons. Har- 
monists are divided." 

The veteran. Dr. George W. Clark, in his Harmony, published 
in 1893, p. 370, says : " Here Jesus passed the Sabbath with the 
family of Lazarus. Many suppose that the supper (John 12:2-8) 
was given on the evening at the close of the Sabbath; but the 
fact that the three other evangelists make no mention of our Lord's 



64 PASSION WEEK 



stopping at Bethany at this time rather implies that nothing 
important to relate occurred then ; and this inference is strengthened 
by the additional fact that the two other evangelists, who speak 
of this supper put it later. John, who alone records his arrival at 
Bethany, was doubtless led, while mentioning it, to relate the 
supper also, as the chief event there during the week. 

" To suppose Matthew and Mark to be relating an event which 
took place three or four days before, does violence to the natural 
course of the narrative, and to the connecting words and clauses. 
Of two difficulties, it is better to choose the less. The accounts of 
the first two evangelists rather lead us to put the supper after the 
decision of the Sanhedrin to defer the arrest of Jesus. This 
accords with the circumstances. Jesus returned to Bethany after 
the discourse of Tuesday, probably in the evening. Wednesday he 
spends in retirement there, and in the evening attends the supper." 

A like disparity of view appears in recent " Lives of Christ," of 
which there is a constantly increasing number. 

Dr. Adam Clarke, in his commentary, published in 1846, after 
giving place to a full statement to both sides of the question, 
whether there were two suppers or one, says, " I incline at present 
to the former opinion." 

One writer believes there were two suppers at the home of 
Martha and Mary, and one anointing. " It was night before they 
reached the little village of Bethany. The home of Martha and 
Mary and their brother Lazarus claimed the privilege of affording 
Jesus and his twelve disciples a generous hospitality. He yielded 
to their claim. It was Friday night. The morrow was spent in 
comparative seclusion with friends. On the return of Jesus from 
Jerusalem, Tuesday evening, Martha and Mary made an entertain- 
ment for him, Judas, of course, was among the guests. . . The 
supper was Martha's homage to Jesus. After the supper Mary 
offers hers." (Lyman Abbott, "Jesus of Nazareth," p. 390.) 

" As the caravans approached Jerusalem, Jesus and his disciples 
seem to have hung back, and thus when the Sabbath was about to 
begin, i. e., at six o'clock in the evening, he entered Bethany. His 
arrival there was soon generally known, and when he entered his 
friends' house for the first time since the resurrection of Lazarus, 
they had plainly prepared for him a solemn Sabbath meal. . . 
Mary really gave a more unusual proof of reverence by anointing 
Jesus' feet and drying them with her hair" (John 12: 1-3). 
(Bernhard Weiss, Berlin, " Life of Christ," Vol. Ill, pp. 224, 225.) 



SUPPERS AT BETHANY 65 

" On his way to Jerusalem for the last time Jesus reached 
Bethany ' six days ' before the Passover — that is to say, in all 
probability on the Friday evening previous to his death. It was 
natural that he should wish to spend his last Sabbath in the 
congenial and strengthening society of a family whose welcome 
and whose affection he could rely on. In the little town of Bethany 
he had become popular, and since the raising of Lazarus he was 
regarded with marked veneration. Accordingly they made him a 
feast, which, as Mark informs us, was given in the house of 
Simon the leper." (Dr. Marcus Dods, Edinburgh, "The Life of 
St. John," Vol. II, p. 4.) 

" If our Lord arrived in Bethany on Friday evening, and spent 
the Sabbath with his friends there, * the next day,' of verse 12, 
is Sunday; and in the church year this is known as Palm Sunday, 
from the incident here related." (Id., p. 19.) 

" A number of chronological difficulties meet us in the narrative 
of the last week, (i) The prima facie view would certainly be 
that the anointing at Bethany was placed by Mark two days 
(Mark 14) and by John six days (John 12 : i), before the Pass- 
over. It is commonly removed by treating the note of time in 
Mark 14 : i as referring to events of verses i, 2, 10, 11, and not 
to the intervening narrative of verses 3-9. In support of this, 
Meyer-Weiss points to analogous cases of intrusive matter in 
Mark 3: 13-30; 4: 10-25; 6 : 14-29; 7 : 25-30. On the other hand, 
McClellan restricts the application of John 12 : i to the arrival 
at Bethany; which, according to him, was on the afternoon of 
Friday. The anointing he would place on Tuesday. Either view 
is possible, and neither can be verified. If we think that the fourth 
evangelist deliberately corrects his predecessors, we shall probably 
give the preference to him. On such a point Mark is not a first- 
hand authority; and the connection between his placing of the 
betrayal and the anointing may well be loose." (Dr. Wm. San- 
day, Oxford, England, "Outlines of the Life of Christ," p. 145.) 

" Saint Matthew and Saint Mark relate Christ's brief stay at 
Bethany and his anointing by Mary, not in chronological order, 
but introduce it at a later period, as it were, in contrast to the 
betrayal of Judas. Accordingly, they pass from the miracles at 
Jericho, immediately to the entry into Jerusalem, leaving for the 
present what had occurred in the latter hamlet." (Edersheim, 
"Life and Times of Jesus," Vol. II, p. 364.) 

"Jesus had arrived at Bethany six days before the Passover — 



66 PASSION WEEK 



that is, on a Friday. The day after was the Sabbath, and * they 
made him a supper.' It was the special festive meal of the 
Sabbath." (Id., p. 358.) 

Canon Farrar accepts this view. His interesting comment is as 
follows : " He did not mean to make the city of Jerusalem his 
actual resting-place, but preferred as usual to stay in the loved 
home in Bethany. Thither he arrived on the evening of Friday, 
six days before the Passover. The Sabbath Day was spent in quiet, 
and in the evening they made him a supper. Saint Matthew and 
Saint Mark say a little mysteriously that this feast was given in 
the house of Simon the leper. Saint John makes no mention what- 
ever of Simon the leper, a name which does not occur else- 
w^here, and it is clear from his narrative that the family of 
Bethany were in all respects the central figures of this entertain- 
ment. Martha seems to have had the entire supervision of the 
feast, and the risen Lazarus was almost as much an object of 
curiosity as Jesus himself." ("Life of Christ," p. 469.) 

" That the supper mentioned by Matthew (26 : 6-13) and Mark 
(14 : 3-9) is identical with this of John, has been questioned, but 
without good grounds. Lightfoot, Clericus, A. Clarke, McKnight, 
Whitby, make them distinct." (Andrews, '' Life of Our Lord," 

P- 399-)^ 

" Placing the Lord's arrival at Bethany on Friday, the supper 
and anointing on Saturday, his solemn entry into the city took 
place Sunday." (Id., p. 404.) 

"There was a feast at Bethany that evening (Friday). No 
cynical Pharisee profaned it, but love and gratitude made it rich 
and sweet. Martha served; Lazarus sat beside Jesus. Mary came 
and broke her alabaster box of ointment on Jesus' head." (Dr. 
W. E. Barton, "Jesus of Nazareth," ed. of 1903, p. 357.) 

" John is definite, ' six days before the passover.' Synoptists 
place it after the day of controversy, on the Wednesday preceding 
the Passover. John is probably correct." (President Rush 
Rhees, Univ. Rochester, "The Life of Jesus of Nazareth," p. 169.) 

" The supper which was made for Jesus in the house of Simon 
the leper (Mark 14 : 3) is probably to be placed on the Jewish 
Sabbath; that is, according to our mode of speech, the day after 
his arrival in Bethany, For the triumphal entry fell on the day fol- 
lowing that of the supper (John 12 : 12), and therefore the supper 
cannot have been on Friday, for in that case the triumphal entry 
would have come on the Jewish Sabbath." (Dr. G. H. Gilbert, 



SUPPERS AT BETHANY 67 

Prof. N. T. Lit. and Inter., Chicago Theol. Seminary, " The Stu- 
dent's Life of Christ," p. 234.) 

" From Jericho a long and toilsome road, climbing several 
thousand feet through a parched and hideous country, leads to 
Jerusalem. By this road he traveled, reaching Bethany on the eve 
of the Passover, and at Bethany Martha and Mary made him a 
feast." (W. J. Dawson's "Life of Christ," p. 326.) 

" When Jesus awoke next morning it was with complete com- 
posure. His disciples, refractory as they had been to his teaching 
the night before, had returned to their allegiance, and manifested 
no resentment. It is an affecting characteristic of these men that 
with all the narrowness of their intellectual apprehensions there 
was joined that peculiar nobility of temper which endures rebuke 
without cherishing offense. They doubted the wisdom of their 
Master, they criticized his conduct, but they never failed to follow 
him. On this day they were to follow him through one of the 
most exciting scenes of hi& career. It was a scene that seemed in 
such complete contradiction to the gloomy forecasts of defeat to 
which Jesus had accustomed them, that they might be excused if 
now, at last, they thought the kingdom of an outward triumph had 
already come." (Id., p. 332.) 

One of the latest authorities consulted, the Italian scholar, 
Giovanni Resadi, in his recent treatise, entitled " The Trial of 
Jesus," published by Dodd, Mead & Co., says : " It is doubtful 
whether the supper described by John is the same as that men- 
tioned by the first two evangelists. Luke is silent respecting it. 
The divergencies between John and the other evangelists are very 
noteworthy." (P. 109.) 



CHAPTER IV 

THE TWO DAYS PREVIOUS TO THE PASSOVER 

Did Judas Go Out to Betray Jesus Tuesday Night? 

When Jesus had left the temple for the last time, there followed 
his celebrated interview with his disciples as he sat on the Mount 
of Olives. This was two days before the Passover, and presum- 
ably the company withdrew forthwith from that interview to the 
house of Simon the leper. Let us here note what is going on at 
this special time in Jerusalem. " Then were gathered together the 
chief priests, and the elders of the people, unto the court of the 
high priest, who was called Caiaphas; and they took counsel 
together that they might take Jesus by subtlety, and kill him. 
But they said, Not during the feast, lest a tumult arise among 
the people" (Matt. 26 : 3-5). Such then was the state of things 
in Jerusalem when Jesus and his disciples had come to the house 
of Simon in Bethany. 

Now, as if in connection with what is going on in Jerusalem, 
what occurs in Bethany ? " Then one of the twelve, who was 
called Judas Iscariot, went unto the chief priests, and said. 
What are ye willing to give me, and I will deliver him unto 
you?" (Matt. 26 : 14, 15) ; that is, in such a way as to make no 
tumult; the idea no doubt being to make the arrest in Bethany. 
As the company must have arrived late at Simon's, it must have 
been night when Judas left them. In Mark 14 : i, 2, 10, 11, we 
find the same particulars and equally definite as to the time (after 
two days jvas the Passover) and place. Here Luke (22 : 1-3) 
introduces the same events, as follows : " Now the feast of un- 
leavened bread drew nigh, which is called the passover " (this 
expression is just what we should expect if the precise time was 
two days before the feast) . " And the chief priests and the 
scribes sought how they might put him to death; for they feared 
the people." Here Luke adds an item to what the others relate: 
"And Satan entered into Judas" (22: 1-3). This is telling 
how — under what impulse — Judas went out. Here we have the 
time both when he went out and when Satan entered into him, 
68 



THE TWO DAYS PREVIOUS TO THE PASSOVER 69 

namely, when they were at the supper at Simon's, two days 
before the Passover. Special emphasis is given to the aim, which 
was to deliver Jesus up to them without a crowd. No doubt, we 
may say again, his eye was on Bethany as the scene for doing it. 

Now John, away back five chapters before he treats of the 
scene in Gethsemane, yet after Jesus had left the temple, it being 
an occasion which, like Luke, he introduces as being some time 
before the feast of the Passover, incidentally speaking of it as a 
time of supper, says (13 : 27), "Then entered Satan into him 
(Judas)." Who can doubt that this is the identical event Luke 
tells of, and that the time and the place are the same? Just as 
Luke follows this event by saying that he went away and con- 
sulted with the chief priests, so John follows the event by telling 
what Jesus said to Judas, " What thou doest, do quickly " ; and the 
divine pen adds (ver. 30), "He then . . . went out straightway, 
and it was night." Can it be doubted that this affair of going out, 
as recorded by John, is the same as that given by Luke, and 
that by consequence, if what Luke describes was two days before 
the Passover, so also was what John describes, and that neither 
has any bearing as to whether Judas was present on an occasion 
two days later? But John gives more fully the particulars of the 
occasion when Judas went out — relates the circumstances under 
which Satan entered Judas. Having omitted the matter of plotting 
that at this very time was going on in Jerusalem, he brings in as if 
in connection with that plotting a full statement of what was going 
on in Bethany. 

At the very beginning ol his account of the occasion, he speaks 
of the devil having already put it into the heart of Judas to be- 
tray Jesus; then, further advanced in the supper, he represents 
Jesus in an excess of sorrow, disclosing to his disciples how one of 
them would betray him. As may well be supposed, they seemed 
to be struck dumb; and though during the silence, Jesus signified 
to John by the morsel who was meant, yet the rest remained wholly 
ignorant and without the least mistrust of Judas. After the 
morsel, then entered Satan into Judas. Jesus therefore says to 
him, " What thou doest, do quickly," no one, however, under- 
standing the import. We do not know that Judas himself did. He 
may have been so possessed from that moment, so intent on his 
purpose, that it is said of him, " He then, having received the 
sop, went out straightway; and it was night." John is only more 
circumstantially recording the identical event which the other 



70 PASSION WEEK 



writers give us when they relate how Judas went away, and 
from that time sought to deliver up Jesus, which all admit was 
the very night after Jesus had left the temple, two days before the 
Passover. 

The synoptists treat with much particularity of the last supper, 
including the introduction of the memorial rite, making enough in 
all reason, to take place on that occasion, which could not have 
been long protracted, since the arrest that very night follov/ed so 
soon. But if, when John says Judas went out, it was from the 
Passover supper, then all that he wrote in the memorable five 
chapters beginning with the thirteenth, belongs to the one supper 
occasion immediately preceding the arrest — all this added to what 
the synoptists write, and crowded into one brief mealtime. The 
expositors tell us that such is the fact; that when John says (13 : i), 
" Now before the feast of the passover," it means before the 
repast which was at that moment ready for the disciples; as 
if that was our Lord's last supper with them, as if they were 
already in that large upper room furnished. It means, they 
say, that the first day of Unleavened Bread had already come. 
This seems to us preposterous. And further, when Jesus says, 
" What thou doest, do quickly," and no one understood it, we 
are told how some thought he was sent out to buy what was 
needed for the feast. This surely ought to satisfy any one that 
they were not at that very time partaking of the feast alluded to in 
those words. But what do the expositors tell us ? " This means," 
they say, " hurried ptarchases to complete the feast then in prog- 
ress " ; and this, they assure us, was the Passover supper. We 
are told that when the disciples found the large upper room fur- 
nished, there they made ready the Passover, a poor make-ready, 
if toward the close of the feast Judas had to go through the city 
to hunt up what was lacking. 

NOTE. PLACE IN A GOSPEL HARMONY OF JOHN I3 ! I-3O 

The standard modern harmonists put John 13 : 1-30 in connec- 
tion with the Passover supper, Thursday evening. 

Doctor Broadus makes parallel John 13 : 21, 22, Matthew 
26 : 21, 22, Mark 14 : 18, 19, Luke 22 : 21-23. 

Stevens and Burton arrange them, John 13 : 21-26, Matthew 
26 : 21-25, Mark 14 : 18-21, Luke 22 : 21-23. These passages may 
be conveniently examined side by side. 



THE TWO DAYS PREVIOUS TO THE PASSOVER 71 

The remainder of these thirty verses of John, namely, 1-20 
and 23-30, are respectively inserted immediately before and after 
the parallel passages quoted above, in the first harmony named; 
and verses 1-20 and 27-30 have a like position in the second; in 
neither case paralleling any other Scripture. 

The reasons for connecting this part of John's Gospel with the 
others are doubtless found either in verses 21, 22, or in 21-26; 
yet it will be difficult to find any real parallelism in any part of it 
except the words in verse 21, "Verily, verily, I say unto you that 
one of you shall betray me." 

May there not be even better reason for believing that this 
statement was made at Tuesday night's supper ? Judas was at that 
supper; Satan entered into him at that time (Luke 22 : 3, 4) to 
betray Jesus to the chief priests, and he doubtless ,went out from 
there for that purpose. How natural that Jesus should be troubled 
in the spirit, and should say, "Verily, verily, I say unto you that 
one of you shall betray . me," that the disciples should have 
" looked one on another, doubting of whom he spake," that John, 
at Peter's request, should lean back and ask, " Lord, who is it ? " 
and that a little later Jesus should say to the man, now possessed 
of Satan, " What thou doest, do quickly," and that " he went out 
straightway, and it was night." 

Each of the first three evangelists records the departure of Judas 
Tuesday night to commune with the chief priests, Luke adding in 
the preceding verse that " Satan entered into Judas," corroborating 
thus John's statement, in his account of Passion week, written 
thirty-five or forty years later. (Ver. 27.) 

If Jesus " foretold " Judas' treachery, as the synoptists hold, 
was it not at this supper Tuesday night rather than the following 
Thursday night? Is it within the bounds of probability that 
Jesus let him go out in so public a manner, without giving any 
intimation of his treachery? Why should he have withheld the 
disclosure for two whole days after this overt act? Would that 
have been foretelling in fact, especially as he had often before men- 
tioned the fact, beginning away back during the Galilean ministry, 
that he was to be delivered up to be put to death? 

Let us return to the supper at the house of Simon, as given in 

Matthew 26 : 1-16 and Mark 14 : i-ii, and compare with Luke 

22 : 1-6 and John 13 : 1-30, and see if any real difficulty is 

encountered by placing John's account alongside of the other three. 

(See Harmony, pages 120-125.) 



72 PASSION WEEK 



Matthew begins, verse 2, Ye know that after two days the pass- 
over Cometh. 

Mark begins, verse i, Now after two days was the feast of the 

passover. 

Luke begins, verse i. Now the feast of unleavened bread 

drew; nigh. 

John begins, verse i, Now before the feast of the passover. 

The dates named by the four evangelists correspond sub- 
stantially. 

Matthew then mentions Jesus' further prediction of his cruci- 
fixion and, with Mark and Luke, describes the plotting to this end. 

John simply says: "Jesus, knowing that his hour was come 
that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having 
loved his own that were in the world, he loved them unto the end." 

According to this interpretation, Matthew and Mark next 
describe the supper at the house of Simon; and John follows with 
the account of Jesus' washing the disciples' feet, " during supper." 

Then follows the account of Judas' bargaining for the betrayal: 
Matthew 26 : 14-16; Mark 14 : 10, 11 ; Luke 22 : 3-6; John 13 : 
^7-30, John's account closing with the words, " and it was night." 

Two more events seem to fit in here admirably to close the 
record of Tuesday night: John 13 : 31-38 and 14 : 1-31, ending 
with Jesus' words, " Arise, let us go hence." 

If, then, no other serious objection can be found to this 
arrangement, it will solve a number of most difficult problems : 

I. It will make clear the date when Satan so far entered into 
Judas as to impel him to leave his associates for the purpose of 
bartering with the chief priests to deliver Jesus to them in 
Bethany, namely, Tuesday night at the house of Simon, rather 
than Tuesday night and Thursday night, at the Passover supper, 
as held by all the harmonists. 

Notice especially the two verses, and their connection: 

(a) Lwke 22 : 3, 4: "And Satan entered into Judas who was 
called Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve, and he went 
away, and communed with the chief priests and captains, how 
he might deliver him unto them," clearly Tuesday night. 

(b) John 13 : 26, 27: "Jesus therefore answered, He it is for 
whom I shall dip the sop, and give it him. So when he had dipped 
the sop, he taketh and giveth it to Judas, the son of Simon 



THE TWO DAYS PREVIOUS TO THE PASSOVER 73 

Iscariot. And after the sop, then entered Satan into him. Jesus 
therefore saith unto him, What thou doest, do quickly." 
Why not Tuesday night also? 

2. It will make clear beyond peradventure the meaning of 
Jesus' words: "What thou doest, do quickly" (John 13 : 27). 

3. It will solve in the negative, in the simplest possible way, 
the much-mooted question whether Judas went out after the 
Passover supper, and before the institution of the Lord's Supper, 
since no word can anywhere else be found in the Bible supporting 
such an assumption. 

4. It will obviate the necessity of dividing up the first forty- 
six verses of the twenty-sixth chapter of Matthew into four sec- 
tions, and transposing these sections as follows: 1-25; 31-35; 
26-30; 36-46; and leave the record as graphically and simply told 
in God's word. 

5. It will not be necessary to cut up the first forty-two verses 
of the fourteenth of Mark, and parcel out as follows: 1-21; 
27-31; 22-26; 32-42; but leave Mark's record also without 
attempted emendation. 

6. The five transpositions in the first forty-six verses of Luke 
22, as follows: 1-16; 24-30; 21-23; 31-3^; 17-20; 39-46, will all 
disappear, requiring only the dropping of verses 19 and 20 below 
30 to make the parallelism with Matthew and Mark complete. 

7. The dismemberment of John 12, left after the harmonizing 
of Doctor Broadus, as follows: 

Verse i, Friday before the Passover. 

Verses 9-1 1, Saturday. 

Verses 12-19, Sunday. 

Verses 20-50, Monday. 

Verses 2-8, Tuesday evening at the house of 

Simon. 
Chapters 13 and 14, Thursday evening, 

will all disappear, and leave chapters 13 and 14 to follow chapter 
12, Tuesday evening. 

In the above comparisons reference is made to the Broadus 
Harmony. If we compare with the later Stevens and Burton 
Harmony, we find them carrying back two passages, Matthe\v3 
26 : 6-13 and Mark 14 : 3-9 to follow chapters 20 and 10 respect- 
ively, in order to combine the suppers at Bethany described by 

F 



74 PASSION WEEK 



Matthew and Mark with that of John 12 : 2-8; also carrying for- 
ward John 13 : 1-30 from " before the feast of the passover," 
to near the end of that feast, requiring no httle explanation and 
argument. 

If the venerable Doctor Robinson's Harmony, as revised by 
Riddle, be consulted, we find five transpositions in Matthew, six 
in Mark, nine in Luke, and three in John, of the same chapters; 
each of these three scholars having a different method of sepa- 
rating and combining, and apparently to support somewhat dif- 
ferent theories. 

The serious objection to all this tampering with the Gospel 
record is that Scripture is thereby discredited, and that the 
reader does not know what to accept or what to expect from 
such harmonizing. 

If, then, it is possible to construct a real harmony from, the 
Gospels as originally written, it seems well worth the effort; and 
if this little book shall contribute in any measure to such an end 
the author's purpose will be fulfilled. 

In a later " Outline Harmony of the Gospels," Doctor Riddle 
has reduced the number of transpositions in these several chap- 
ters, in Matthew, from five to four; in Mark, from six to two; in 
Luke, from nine to seven; and left John intact; and the result is 
quite at variance with any former one by this veteran author, and 
unlike any other harmony the editor has been able to find; this 
too, by a theologian and scholar, who began this kind of study 
as professor of New Testament Exegesis, at Hartford Theological 
Seminary, in 1871. It illustrates the unstable and unsatisfactory 
character of all the old theories of Passion week, and the need 
of an entirely new one. 

To sum up, then, in the briefest possible space : If Doctor Whit- 
man's Plan of Harmony be accepted, namely: 

1. To return to the original view, of two recorded suppers at 
Bethany, the one on Friday, the other on the following Tuesday 
evening ; 

2. To connect John's second supper with those of Matthew and 
Mark; 

3. To give four days, instead of two, to Christ's teaching at 
Jerusalem during Passion week, which occupies so large and 
important a part of the whole gospel record, nearly one-third; 

It will tend to solve important problems hitherto apparently 
unsolvable : 



THE TWO DAYS PREVIOUS TO THE PASSOVER 75 

(a) To remove the discreditable and increasing want of har- 
mony among harmonists, as illustrated above in chapter four and 
accompanying note. 

(b) To remove the shocking and unnecessary discrediting of 
Scripture in the vain effort to accomplish the impossible, 

(c) To abandon the dismemberment and rewriting of the 
simple stories of Passion week, as told by all four of the 
evangelists. 

(d) To enable the profoundest scholar, and the unlettered 
reader, alike, to read, understand, and accept the marvelous story 
just as recorded nineteen centuries ago by the companions and 
earliest disciples of our Lord. 



CHAPTER V 

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WORDS, " ARISE_, LET US GO HENCE " 

Did Tuesday Night's Teaching End with John 14 : 31? 

Let it be noticed that when Judas had left in the night (John 
13 • 30 )> Jesus, according to John's record, commenced a very- 
tender discourse with the remaining eleven. How free the inter- 
view between them continues on till, at length — it must have 
been near midnight — there comes a sudden break. " The prince 
. . . cometh," says Jesus. "Arise, let us go hence." What do 
these words mean? Can any one doubt they did go hence? No 
one has ever told us where they jVient, but need any one doubt 
they went to some seclusion, where, after a few hours of sleep, 
the interview was resumed and the ensuing day given to the 
cordial commingling of Christ with his disciples (the Eleven), the 
last and best day in this respect they ever had together, descrip- 
tive of which we happily have those three notable chapters, 
fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth of John. 

It is certainly the last thing an expositor should have thought 
of, that, while putting all that John records as taking place after 
Judas went out — all that is embraced in the last of the thirteenth 
chapter and the whole of the fourteenth — putting all this, we say, 
as coming after the memorial rite, then, when in this case it 
could not have been much short of midnight that the company 
changed their quarters, to suppose that, before crossing the 
Kidron, they somewhere had leisure for the tranquil and un- 
hurried intercourse sufficient, we may well judge, to have re- 
quired a whole day's time — at any rate the pen of inspiration, 
which is a miracle in brevity, employs three whole chapters in 
describing it — all this before crossing the Kidron the very night 
before the arrest — it is too improbable to be admitted in the 
absence of any evidence. The expositor who admits that it. must 
have been midnight when the break occurred, claims that it was 
on the way to the garden, in the moonlight, that the discourse 
between Jesus and his disciples was resumed, ending in the prayer, 
as embraced in John's three chapters, the fifteenth, sixteenth, and 
seventeenth; a conception which seems next to the impossible. 

76 



"ARISE, LET US GO HENCE" yy 

There was much significance in the words of John 13 : 27, 
" What thou doest, do quickly." We regard it as expressing 
what was precisely the intent of Judas at that time, for it was 
already in his heart to betray Jesus, but with the entrance of the 
devil on taking the morsel, he was possessed with the idea that 
that very night was the time to effect his purpose; for were 
not the chiefs of Jerusalem gathered in counsel that very hour? 
How could he, the devil in him, fail to seize the present moment 
to appear before the plotting enemies of Jesus with the question, 
" What will ye give me and I myself, kaigo, will deliver him up to 
you without fear of tumult ? " We know it was the determination 
of Judas to make quick work. It is no wild conjecture to say that 
ere an hour had passed from the time he went out, he stood before 
that council in Jerusalem to tell them there was no need of any 
tumult or of any delay. It is no conjecture, but only in the line 
of reason, to suppose that not two hours had passed before a band 
was made up and ready to start out to Bethany. This only accords 
with jvhat Jesus, we may say, foretold when he said, make haste. 
It was Judas' first opportunity. And would he not improve it? 
Jesus knew he would succeed, but not that night. We believe that 
when, at that late hour, Jesus said, " The prince of the world 
cometh," Judas was starting out from Jerusalem with his band. 
" Arise." We think the verb " egeiro " here has its distinctive force, 
wake up. It is in line to suppose the disciples for the past week 
had only broken rest at night, and that at the present late hour it 
had become almost impossible for them to keep awake. The force 
of the injunction, as we may well imagine, is " Wake up now ! We 
are not to sleep here, we must go hence." 

Jesus and the Eleven Probably in Retreat Wednesday and 
Thursday 

We do not know where they went; but it is quite certain 
they went where Judas never found them. We can imagine what 
silence reigned when he came with his band hurriedly to the 
deserted premises of Simon, only to be foiled in his first attempt 
to deliver up the Lord Jesus. Jesus and his companions were 
already in that safe retreat where even the " prince of the world " 
could not find them; where, after refreshing sleep and their morn- 
ing's repast, they had the day all to themselves ; a day when Jesus 
stood to them in the relation of Friend instead of Master; when 
too, the absence of Judas, we think, favored the free intercourse 



yS PASSION WEEK 



between them (for John, at least, knew from the signal of the 
night previous, his true character) ; the day which afforded pre- 
cisely the opportunity which Gospel harmony requires for con- 
tinuing that farewell discourse which the pen of John commemo- 
rates in the three chapters following these significant words, 
" Arise, let us go hence " — our Lord's last day with his disciples 
in sacred Bethany. It seems quite natural to infer from John 12 : 10, 
that Lazarus, in danger of being kidnapped, had withdrawn to 
some place of concealment, Martha and Mary with him. As 
Jesus ,was in Bethany every night, they were doubtless under 
his advice where to go. Hence what is more natural than to 
suppose that, when the break occurred in the discourse, and the 
company needed a place of concealment for themselves, they 
went to the safe retreat of Lazarus? Thus it may have been 
(and we love to think of such a possibility) that Martha and 
Mary, with Lazarus, their brother, had Jesus and the Eleven for 
their guests on that day so memorable for all time to the lovers 
of New Testament history. 

Canon Farrar remarks very truly : " No mortal has ever known 
where Christ and his disciples were all that day and night pre- 
ceding the day of Unleavened Bread." But no one can well doubt 
that they were away from any human habitation, and consequently 
(an item of moment in this connection), away from the perch of 
fowls; so that Peter never again heard the cock crow till he had 
thrice denied his Lord. It is worthy of remark that where the 
synoptists — all three of them — give the words of Jesus, and 
where we know it was on the Passover evening, it is every time 
" this night " or " this very day," before the cock will crow. But 
John, speaking of what occurred on the feet-washing night, says 
simply, " Before the cock shall crow," unlimited by '* this night," 
or " this very day," which, interpreted by the fulfilment, must mean 
before ever again he should hear the cock crow. 

Here we take pleasure in appending what we once cut from a 
religious weekly. No other man we know of has done so much in 
so few words for Gospel harmony as the author of the following 
paragraph : 

Three Suppers: 

The first, John 12 : i, 2; six days before the Passover at 
Bethany. Present, Lazarus, Mary, and Martha. 

The second, John 13 : i, "before the feast of the passover,'* 
washing feet, 4-17. John leaning on the bosom of Jesus, 23-25. 



"ARISE, LET US GO HENCE'' 79 

The sop given to Judas, and he went out, 26-30. All left this 
supper at 14 : 31, for then Jesus said, "Arise, let us go hence." 
The second supper was also out of Jerusalem, for Luke says: 
" And every night he jyent out and lodged in the mount that is 
called Olivet, 21 : 37. And in John 18 : i, we read, " When 
Jesus had spoken these words," etc. John means the words 
found in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth chapters. He 
gives an account of the arrest, the trial, and the crucifixion in the 
eighteenth and nineteenth chapters, but he never mentions the 
Passover supper. His account in 18 : i begins after the time of 
the Passover supper, as we learn by Matthew 26 : 17: "Where 
wilt thou that we prepare for thee to eat the passover ? " and 20-25. 
The Passover supper. This is the third. Jesus was betrayed 
this night. We may now add the Lord's Supper, and say that it is 
the fourth. When we mix the suppers, the circumstances will 
not agree. Do not mix, and all do agree. 

P. S. G. Watson. 

Austin, Texas. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE '"lost WEDNESDAY'* 

Writers at Variance Regarding Wednesday of Passion Week 

Certain writers, who have sought more especially to portray 
to us the life of Jesus, tell us as they draw nigh to its close, 
of a lost Wednesday. They give a full account of what he did 
and said the last day he was in the temple (supposed by them to 
be on Tuesday), and how in the evening he paused on the 
Mount of Olives to give his disciples a better comprehension 
of what he had predicted. They tell us where he was at night, 
namely, at the house of Simon the leper, and what took place; 
but " what of him and his disciples on the next day, Wednes- 
day; where they were, what was said or done, no mortal can 
divine or even attempt a conjecture." 

May not this mystery about the lost Wednesday, as they call 
it, be of their own making? They crowd the whole of what 
occurred on that day and a large part of what occurred the night 
before into the one feasting occasion on the night in which our 
Lord was betrayed. And when they have done this, they wonder 
what Jesus and his disciples could have been doing all the 
previous Wednesday. 

They assign the whole of what John embraces in his memorable 
five chapters, fourteenth to seventeenth inclusive, to one brief 
mealtime; that too, after they had reclined at the table in the 
upper room the evening before our Lord's arrest. We think that 
lovers of Scripture narrative would be glad to accept the view that 
our Lord and his disciples, not counting Judas, had a part of two 
successive days previous to the day of IJnleavened Bread for the 
free and unhurried intercourse with one another — intercourse of 
unspeakable moment — such as those five precious chapters dis- 
close to us. 

Nor need it be esteemed too surprising if, according to this 
theory, we must admit that John says not one word about the 
Passover occasion. The wonder is not that John, who wrote 
some twenty years after the synoptists, should omit all notice of 
an occasion which he knew they, each with more or less minute- 
80 



THE "LOST WEDNESDAY" 8i 



ness, had described. The wonder is that Matthew, Mark, and 
Luke should all omit the rich portion of the Gospel which includes 
the farewell address and the memorable prayer as set forth in 
those five chapters, when they could not have known that John 
would live on and, twenty or thirty years later, give what they 
had omitted — in some respects the richest part of the whole Gospel 
narratives — to the world. 

The Memorial Rite Symbolizing Universal Brotherhood 

Let us consider the relation between these two things: what 
John did, and what the synoptists did. John did give the fare- 
well interview between Jesus and his disciples, as embraced in 
the last of chapter 13 and the whole of the four following chapters. 
This farewell interview the three synoptists omit, but they bring 
in an important transaction which John omits, the institution of 
a memorial rite. Here let us consider the nature of what the 
synoptists bring in but John omits. It is an object-lesson in 
which we behold a company sharing together the body and blood 
of Jesus. How, then, ought they to love Christ ! How ought 
they to love one another! Here it must be considered that in the 
farewell interview our Lord's great anxiety was that they should 
love one another — their success in this service would depend upon 
this. And how could they love one another in Jesus except as they 
remembered him and loved him ? What, then, could be more calcu- 
lated to keep Jesus and therefore all the instructions as contained 
in the farewell address in remembrance, than just such a rite as 
he introduced at the close of the last supper? For what was that 
rite which the synoptists and Paul describe but an object-lesson 
wherein Jesus set before the eyes of his disciples the concen- 
trated doctrines which fell from his lips, and the prayer he breathed 
forth, in the farewell interview which John so faithfully records? 
There was no time to repeat and urge again upon the attention 
of his followers all he has said and taught on that night and the 
Wednesday following. 

There was time to present it all in the most perfect object-lesson 
ever known; an object-lesson to be held up from time to time be- 
fore all generations to come, which the people of every land and 
tongue could understand, perpetuating the memorable interview of 
Jesus with his disciples on that lost Wednesday, and connecting 
it forever with the scene which soon followed on Calvary. 



CHAPTER VII 

"but JOHN SAYS JUDAS WENT OUT " 

Was Judas Present at the Institution of the Lord's Supper? 

We notice in Doctor Broadus' Commentary on Matthew, page 
528, a statement to the effect that Judas was not present when 
the memorial ordinance was instituted. The passage quoted seems 
quite devoid of argument. We give the first part : " According 
to the order in Matthew and Mark, Judas went out before the 
memorial of bread and wine was instituted." It is difficult to 
see what is here meant; for what is the fact? Neither Matthew 
nor Mark, nor indeed Luke, in the accounts they give of the last 
Passover occasion, say one word about Judas' going out. These 
all, however, mention him by name as being at the Passover, 
and if they say nothing of his leaving before the rest, their 
presumptive testimony is that he remained as long as the rest 
did. But there is the positive testimony of Luke to the presence 
of Judas, in that he represents Jesus as saying immediately fol- 
lowing the memorable words of 22 : 20, " This cup is the new 
covenant in my blood, even that which is poured out for you." 
Following this in verse 21, he tells us that Jesus adds: "But be- 
hold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table." 
No expositorial pen should be found making the effort to sever 
these words from their connection in Luke's account of the 
memorial rite. 

" But John says Judas went out," is often stated as conclusive 
that Judas was absent at the time the ordinance was instituted. 
Each of the other Gospel writers, indeed, relates the same, that 
Judas went away. But every careful reader should know that they 
are describing what happened on an occasion previous to that 
Passover. And this same careful reader also should know that 
John is speaking of the same occasion when he, in 13 : 30, intro- 
duced the words : " He then, having received the sop, went out 
straightway; and it was night." 

But how can any expositor presume that John, in giving this 
account of Judas, is speaking of anything that occurred at the 
Passover supper, jvhen it is quite certain that he never wrote one 
82 



"BUT JOHN SAYS JUDAS WENT OUT" 83 

word about that occasion ? If you could find a man who has 
read only the Gospel of John, and were to question him about 
the Passover supper which the Lord had with his disciples in an 
upper room in Jerusalem on the evening before he was arrested, 
and the memorial of bread and jvine which he on that occasion 
introduced, the only consistent response he would make would 
be, " I do not know what you mean." Indeed, what expositor 
knows not, or ought not to know, that, with the Gospel of John 
alone left in the hands of men, nothing would ever have been 
heard or known or named of that " last supper," or of that 
memorial rite from the time when John laid down his pen to 
the present hour. 



CHAPTER VIII 

WHETHER JUDAS PARTOOK OR NOT: ITS RELATION TO OTHER 

QUESTIONS 

The Propriety of Admitting Judas to the First Lord's Supper 

One of our best expositors says that the question whether Judas 
was present at the institution of the Lord's Supper is one of very 
Httle importance. But consider this point. The majority of those 
who entertain a negative view of this question evidently do con- 
sider it important. They seem to think the honor of Jesus is 
concerned and, in the course of their argument, they disclose 
a latent conviction that it would be just cause of reproach to 
Jesus if, under his very eye, a person so corrupt as he knew Judas 
to be, was allowed to participate in the holy rite. 

Doctor Broadus himself (''Com. on Matt.," p. 528), it must be 
admitted, considers the question important in this regard, for he 
ends his argument in these words : " So there is no propriety in 
understanding that here a flagrantly wicked person was knowingly 
admitted to take part in the ordinance." Here is, at least, the 
insinuation that it would have been just cause of reproach to 
Jesus to allow Judas to participate. But it is known for a certainty 
that Jesus did choose Judas for an apostle. Thus, if Judas did 
partake, is it not inconsistent to reproach Jesus for it, unless 
we are willing to go back and reproach him for choosing Judas 
as an apostle? 

If there is occasion for perplexity here in regard to Judas' 
partaking (admitting that he did), it lies in the circumstance of 
Jesus making choice of him as one of the Twelve. How shall we 
understand this? Our Lord, we think, acted in view of the time 
when there would be churches, and his followers would be left to 
the exercise of their own limited knowledge in the matter of ad- 
mitting and rejecting members. The Paraclete would indeed 
come, but even that benign helper would not always prevent the 
hypocrite and traitor from commingling with them. It seems 
that not more surely was Jesus to have a fold than that the fold 
would be liable to have within its enclosure the wolf in sheep's 
clothing. 
84 



WHETHER JUDAS PARTOOK 85 

Was it lacking in fitness for Jesus' followers at the start, even 
when he was with them, to labor under the very state of things 
in this respect that would attend his followers in later times? 
It is because Jesus did not allow the company which he chose, to 
be exempt from this state of things, and even foretold its con- 
tinuance, that infidelity gains little by reproaching the Christian 
system on account of hypocrites. 

The expositor, however, supposes it would justly expose the 
Christian system to the charge of spuriousness if Judas was 
allow.ed to participate. But how, we ask, could such be the case 
here, and not in the fact that Jesus had chosen Judas as one of the 
Twelve, and had retained him as such to the end, when he 
even was heard to say, "Have I not chosen you twelve and 
one of you is a devil ? " 

A very harmful notion has prevailed among some brethren that 
one may appropriately refuse to commune (I use this word be- 
cause it is correct) if there is any one in the church whom he 
cannot fellowship. Every such brother is glad to be told by the 
expositor that Judas was not present at what is called the first 
participation. We see his idea in the question : " How could 
John, who knew it was Judas that would betray the Lord, have 
participated with such a man ? " Now the others, though they 
knew not who, yet knew that one of the company was a shame- 
fully wicked character. On this theory they, though Judas 
was absent, not knowing that he was the guilty one, would have 
been justified in refusing to commune; and our Lord would have 
broken the bread and poured the wine without communicants. 

Perhaps the expositor supposes that ten in common with John 
had become aware of Judas' character; that is, knew he was the 
one alluded to by Jesus as his betrayer, and that it was owing 
to his absence that the rite appropriately followed, and was duly 
enjoyed by the Eleven. 

Thus we think the unwillingness to allow Judas' presence is 
largely based on the theory that it would have made the intro- 
duction of the rite impracticable. But this theory is altogether 
delusive. The history of the early churches, indeed of all churches 
that we know anything about, and what our own observation 
teaches from a long connection .with the churches of our time, 
assures us that there is seldom a communion without a Judas 
present. And not unfrequently is there some one who, as he 
partakes, knows, as John knew, who the Judas is. Thus, if Judas 



86 PASSION WEEK 



was present, it only made the occasion more strictly prophetic 
of what was to attend many occasions of the observance of the 
rite in after time. Accordingly, if we object to his presence at 
the inauguration of the rite, we virtually declare the keeping up 
of the ordinance impracticable. 

If, however, Judas was allowed to be present, it should not 
encourage churches to permit loose discipline. Church discipline 
can reach only overt acts. Though it be revealed to a church that 
one of its members is a deceiver or a thief at heart, the church 
can do nothing till some one commits the overt act, is accused, 
is brought to trial, and proved guilty; then it can exclude. Now 
the first church meetings that were ever held were some time 
after Judas had committed his overt act. They did not, however, 
have to try him; he had already hanged himself. Thus, the 
first church action was, not to try Judas and depose him from 
the ministry, but to appoint another to fill his place. 

This question may be considered as affecting the definition of a 
gospel church. If a negative decision is considered important, 
then, by inference, a church is supposed to be composed of only 
regenerate people ; while an affirmative decision harmonizes with a 
different definition, namely, that a church of Christ is composed 
of those who profess or give evidence of regeneration, the latter 
being most correct; for practically only the evidence of regener- 
ation is the qualification for membership. If real regeneration 
were the qualification we never could knoy^ whether a person is 
in the church or not. 

NOTE 

A brief final summary may possibly tend to encourage further 
examination in the hope of eliminating some unsolved problems 
connected with the study of Passion week. 

Among the latest results reached by modern harmonists, regard- 
ing the occurrences of Passion week, the following may be named: 

They are agreed: 

That after reaching Bethany Friday night, Jesus rested over the 
Sabbath. 

That "On the morrow" (John 12 : 12) should be interpreted: 
On the morrow after resting over the Sabbath. 

That the public entry was on Sunday. 

That Jesus' teaching in the temple began Monday morning, and 
ended Tuesday afternoon. 



SUMMARY 87 



That there was but one supper, with anointing, during Passion 
week. 

That Satan entered into Judas to betray Jesus, both Tuesday 
night and Thursday night. 

That Judas went out from the Passover supper, and before the 
institution of the Lord's Supper. 

That the y/ashing of the disciples' feet occurred Thursday 
evening. 

That the five chapters of John 13 to 17 describe what occurred 
Thursday night. 

That there must be various transpositions in the four Gospel 
accounts to secure harmony. 

And yet each one of the above ten conclusions appears to be 
without Scripture warrant or other adequate basis, as even a 
cursory examination of the following harmony will tend to make 
plain. 

The same writers fail to agree lapon the following : 

When or where the anointings described in the Gospels occurred. 
(Matt. 26 : 6-13; Mark 14 : 3-9; John 12 : 2-8.) 

What Jesus meant by the words, " What thou doest, do quickly " 
(John 13 : 27). 

How to interpret Jesus' words, " Arise, let us go hence " (John 

14:31)- 

But each one of these, and like questions, is capable of satis- 
factory answer, as will readily appear from even the briefest 
examination of the same harmony. 

It would seem that there should be further study of the Gospel 
record of Passion week, in the interest of correct and satisfactory 
interpretation of the important events therein narrated. 

The title of this volume indicates that new light is thrown on 
Passion week, and not that the whole truth has been revealed. 



Part Third 
A Harmony of Passion Week 



INTRODUCTORY 



I. FRIDAY: The Blind Men Near Jericho 



Matt. 20 : 29-34 

29 And as they went 
out from Jericho, a 
great mukitude fol- 
lowed him. 30 And 
behold, two blind men 
sitting by the way 
side, when they heard 
that Jesus was pass- 
ing by, cried out, 
saying, Lord, have 
mercy on us, thou son 
of David. 31 And 
the multitude rebuked 
them, that they should 
hold their peace : but 
they cried out the 
more, saying, Lord, 
have mercy on us, 
thou son of David. 
32 And Jesus stood 
still, and called them, 
and said, What will 
ye that I should do 
unto you? 33 They 
say unto him, Lord, 
that our eyes may be 
opened. 34 And Je- 
sus, being moved with 
compassion, touched 
their eyes; and 
straightway they re- 
ceived their sight, 
and followed him. 



Mark 10 : 46-52 

46 And they come 
to Jericho : and as he 
went out from Jeri- 
cho, with his disci- 
ples and a great 
multitude, the son of 
Timasus, Bartimseus, 
a blind beggar, was 
sitting by the way 
side. 47 And when 
he heard that it was 
Jesus the Nazarene, 
he began to cry out, 
and say, Jesus, thou 
son of David, have 
mercy on me. 48 
And many rebuked 
him, that he should 
hold his peace: but 
he cried out the more 
a great deal, Thou 
son of David, have 
mercy on me. 49 
And Jesus stood still, 
and said, Call ye him. 
And they call the 
blind man, saying 
unto him, Be of good 
cheer: rise, he calleth 
thee. 50 And he, 
casting away his gar- 
ment, sprang up, and 
came to Jesus. 51 
And Jesus answered 
him, and said, What 



Luke 18 : 35-43 
35 And it came to 
pass, as he drew nigh 
unto Jericho, a cer- 
tain blind man sat by 
the way side begging : 
36 and hearing a 
multitude going by, 
he inquired what this 
meant. 37 And they 
told him, that Jesus 
of Nazareth passeth 
by. 38 And he cried, 
saying, Jesus, thou 
son of David, have 
mercy on me. 39 
And they that went 
before rebuked him, 
that he should hold 
his peace : but he 
cried out the more a 
great deal, Thou son 
of David, have mercy 
on me. 40 And Je- 
sus stood, and com- 
manded him to be 
brought unto him : 
and when he was 
come near, he asked 
him, 41 What wilt 
thou that I should do 
unto thee? And he 
said, Lord, that I 
may receive my sight. 
42 And Jesus said 
unto him, Receive thy 

91 



92 



PASSION WEEK 



Mark 

wilt thou that I 
should do unto thee? 
blind man 
him, Rab- 
I may re- 
sight. 52 
said unto 



And the 
said unto 
boni, that 
ceive my 
And Jesus 



him, Go thy way; thy 
faith hath made thee 
whole. And straight- 
way he received his 
sight, and followed 
him in the way. 



Luke 

sight: thy faith hatli 
made thee whole. 
43 And immediately 
he received his sight, 
and followed him, 
glorifying God : and 
all the people, when 
they saw it, gave 
praise unto God. 



2. FRIDAY: Visit to Zacchaeus 

Luke 19 : i-io 

I And he entered and was passing through Jericho. 2 And behold, 
a man called by name Zacchaeus; and he was a chief publican, and he 
was rich. 3 And he sought to see Jesus who he was; and could not 
for the crowd, because he was little of stature. 4 And he ran on 
before, and climbed up into a sycomore tree to see him : for he was 
to pass that way. 5 And when Jesus came to the place, he looked up, 
and said unto him, Zacchaeus, make haste, and come down; for to-day 
I must abide at thy house. 6 And he made haste, and came down, and 
received him joyfully. 7 And when they saw it, they all murmured, 
saying, He is gone in to lodge with a man that is a sinner. 8 And 
Zacchaeus stood, and said unto the Lord, Behold, Lord, the half of my 
goods I give to the poor; and if I have wrongfully exacted aught of 
any man, I restore fourfold. 9 And Jesus said unto him, To-day is 
salvation come to this house, forasmuch as he also is a son of 
Abraham. 10 For the Son of man came to seek and to save that 
which was lost. 

3. FRIDAY: Parable of the Minae 

Luke 19 : 11-28 

II And as they heard these things, he added and spake a parable, 
because he was nigh to Jerusalem, and because they supposed that the 
kingdom of God was immediately to appear. 12 He said therefore, A 
certain nobleman went into a far country, to receive for himself a 
kingdom, and to return. 13 And he called ten servants of his, and 
gave them ten pounds, and said unto them, Trade ye herewith till I 
come. 14 But his citizens hated him, and sent an ambassage after him, 
saying, We will not that this man reign over us. 15 And it came to 



HARMONY 93 



Luke 
pass, when he was come back again, having received the kingdom, that 
he commanded these servants, unto whom he had given the money, 
to be called to him, that he might know what they had gained by 
trading. i6 And the first came before him, saying, Lord, thy pound 
hath made ten pounds more. 17 And he said unto him. Well done, 
thou good servant: because thou wast found faithful in a very little, 
have thou authority over ten cities. 18 And the second came, saying, 
Thy pound. Lord, hath made five pounds. 19 And he said unto him 
also. Be thou also over five cities. 20 And another came, saying. Lord, 
behold, here is thy pound, which I kept laid up in a napkin: 21 for I 
feared thee, because thou art an austere man : thou takest up that which 
thou layedst not down, and reapest that which thou didst not sow. 
22 He saith unto him. Out of thine own mouth will I judge thee, thou 
wicked servant. Thou knewest that I am an austere man, taking up 
that which I laid not down, and reaping that which I did not sow ; 23 
then wherefore gavest thou not my money into the bank, and I at my 
coming should have required it with interest? 24 And he said unto 
them that stood by. Take away from him the pound, and give it unto 
him that hath the ten pounds. 25 And they said unto him. Lord, he 
hath ten pounds. 26 I say unto you, that unto every one that hath 
shall be given; but from him that hath not, even that which he hath 
shall be taken away from him. 27 But these mine enemies, that would 
not that I should reign over them, bring hither, and slay them before 
rne. 

28 And when he had thus spoken, he went on before, going up to 
Jerusalem. 

4. FRIDAY EVENING: Anointing of Jesus by Mary of Bethany 

John ii : 55 to 12 : 11 

55 Now the passover of the Jews was at hand: and many went 
up to Jerusalem out of the country before the passover, to purify them- 
selves. 56 They sought therefore for Jesus, and spake one with 
another, as they stood in the temple, What think ye? That he will 
not come to the feast? 57 Now the chief priests and the Pharisees had 
given commandment, that, if any man knew where he was, he should 
show it, that they might take him. 

I Jesus therefore six days before the passover came to Bethany, 
where Lazarus was, whom Jesus raised from the dead. 2 So' they 
made him a supper there: and Martha served; but Lazarus was one 
of them that sat at meat with him. 3 Mary therefore took a pound 
of ointment of pure nard, very precious, and anointed the feet of 
Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair: and the house was filled with 
the odor of the ointment. 4 But Judas Iscariot, one of his disciples, 
that should betray him, saith, 5 Whv was not this ointment sold for 



94 



PASSION WEEK 



John 

three hundred shillings, and given to the poor? 6 Now this he said, 
not because he cared for the poor; but because he was a thief, and 
having the bag took away what was put therein. 7 Jesus therefore 
said, Suffer her to keep it against the day of my burying. 8 For the 
poor ye have always with you; but me ye have not always. 

9 The common people therefore of the Jews learned that he was 
there : and they came, not for Jesus' sake only, but that they might see 
Lazarus also, whom he had raised from the dead. 10 But the chief 
priests took counsel that they might put Lazarus also to death; 11 
because that by reason of him many of the Jews went away, and 
believed on Jesus. 



PASSION WEEK 



5. SATURDAY: The Public Entry 



Matt. 21 : i-ii 
I And vhen they drew nigh 
unto Jerusalem, and came unto 
Bethphage, unto the mount of 
Olives, then Jesus sent two dis- 
ciples, 2 saying unto them, Go into 
the village that is over against 
you, and straightway ye shall find 
an ass tied, and a colt with her: 
loose them, and bring them unto 
me. 3 And if any one say aught 
unto you, ye shall say. The Lord 
hath need of them; and straight- 
way he will send them. 4 Now 
this is come to pass, that it might 
be fulfilled which was spoken 
through the prophet, saying, 

5 Tell ye the daughter of Zion, 
Behold, thy King cometh unto 

thee. 
Meek, and riding upon an ass, 
And upon a colt the foal of an 

ass. 

6 And the disciples went, and did 
even as Jesus appointed them, 7 
and brought the ass, and the colt, 
and put on them their garments; 



Mark ii : i-ii 

I And when they draw nigh 
unto Jerusalem, unto Bethphage 
and Bethany, at the mount of 
Olives, he sendeth two of his 
disciples, 2 and saith unto them, 
Go your way into the village 
that is over against you: and 
straightway as ye enter into it, ye 
shall find a colt tied, whereon no 
man ever yet sat; loose him, and 
bring him. 3 And if any one say 
unto you. Why do ye this ? say ye, 
The Lord hath need of him; and 
straightway he will send him back 
hither. 4 And they went away, 
and found a colt tied at the door 
without in the open street; and 
they loose him. 5 And certain of 
them that stood there said unto 
them. What do ye, loosing the 
colt? 6 And they said unto them 
even as Jesus had said : and they 
let them go. 7 And they bring 
the colt unto Jesus, and cast on 
him their garments ; and he sat 
upon him, 6 And many spread 



HARMONY 



95 



Luke 19 : 29-44 

29 And it came to pass, when 
he drew nigh unto Bethphage and 
Bethany, at the mount that is 
called Olivet, he sent two of the 
disciples, 30 saying, Go your way 
into the village over against yon; 
in which as ye enter ye shall find 
a colt tied, whereon no man ever 
yet sat : loose him, and bring him. 

31 And if any one ask you, Why 
do ye loose him? thus shall ye 
say, The Lord hath need of him. 

32 And they that were sent went 
away, and found even as he had 
said unto them. 2i3 And as they 
were loosing the colt, the owners 
thereof said unto them, Why loose 
ye the colt? 34 And they said, 
The Lord hath need of him. 35 
And they brought him to Jesus : 
and they threw their garments 
upon the colt, and set Jesus there- 
on. 36 And as he went, they 
spread their garments in the way. 
2,7 And as he was now drawing 
nigh, even at the descent of the 



John 12 : 12-19 

12 On the morrow a great 
multitude that had come to the 
feast, when they heard that Jesus 
was coming to Jerusalem, 13 took 
the branches of the palm trees, 
and went forth to meet him, and 
cried out, Hosanna : Blessed is he 
that Cometh in the name of the 
Lord, even the King of Israel. 14 
And Jesus, having found a young 
ass, sat thereon ; as it is written, 
15 Fear not, daughter of Zion : 
behold, thy King cometh, sitting 
on an ass's colt. 16 These things 
understood not his disciples at 
the first : but when Jesus was 
glorified, then remembered they 
that these things were written of 
him, and that they had done these 
things unto him. 17 The multi- 
tude therefore that was with him 
when he called Lazarus out of 
the tomb, and raised him from 
the dead, bare witness. 18 For 
this cause also the multitude went 
and met him, for that they heard 



96 



PASSION WEEK 



Matthew 

and he sat thereon. 8 And the 
most part of the multitude spread 
their garments in the way; and 
others cut branches from the 
trees, and spread them in the way. 
9 And the multitudes that went 
before him, and that followed, 
cried, saying, Hosanna to the son 
of David: Blessed is he that 
Cometh in the name of the Lord ; 
Hosanna in the highest. lo And 
when he was come into Jerusalem, 
all the city was stirred, saying, 
Who is this? ii And the multi- 
tudes said. This is the prophet, 
Jesus, from Nazareth of Galilee. 



Mark 

their garments upon the way; and 
others branches, which they had 
cut from the fields. 9 And they 
that went before, and they that 
followed, cried, Hosanna; Blessed 
is he that cometh in the name of 
the Lord: lo Blessed is the king- 
dom that cometh, the kingdom of 
our father David : Hosanna in the 
highest. 

II And he entered into Jeru- 
salem, into the temple; and when 
he had looked round about upon 
all things, it being now eventide, 
he went out unto Bethany with the 
twelve. 



6. SATURDAY: Greeks Seeking Jesus 

John 12 : 20-36 

20 Now there were certain Greeks among those that went up to worship 
at the feast: 21 these therefore came to Philip, who was of Beth- 
saida of Galilee, and asked him, saying, Sir, we would see Jesus. 22 
Philip cometh and telleth Andrew: Andrew cometh, and Philip, and 
they tell Jesus. 23 And Jesus answereth them, saying. The hour is 
come, that the Son of man should be glorified. 24 Verily, verily, 
I say unto you, Except a grain of wheat fall into the earth and die, 
it abideth by itself alone ; but if it die, it beareth much fruit. 25 He 
that loveth his life loseth it; and he that hateth his life in this world 
shall keep it unto life eternal. 26 If any man serve me, let him 
follow me; and where I am, there shall also my servant be: if any 

(Continued on page 98.) 



HARMONY 



97 



Luke 
mount of Olives, the whole multi- 
tude of the disciples began to re- 
joice and praise God with a loud 
voice for all the mighty works 
which they had seen; 38 saying, 
Blessed is the King that cometh 
in the name of the Lord : peace in 
heaven, and glory in the highest. 
39 And some of the Pharisees 
from the multitude said unto him, 
Teacher, rebuke thy disciples. 40 
And he answered and said, I tell 
you that, if these shall hold their 
peace, the stones will cry out. 

41 And when he drew nigh, he 
saw the city and wept over it, 42 
saying, If thou hadst known in 
this day, even thou, the things 
which belong unto peace ! but now 
they are hid from thine eyes. 43 
For the days shall come upon thee, 
when thine enemies shall cast up a 
bank about thee, and compass thee 
round, and keep thee in on every 
side, 44 and shall dash thee to the 
ground, and thy children within 
thee; and they shall not leave 
in thee one stone upon another; 
because thou knewest not the time 
of thy visitation. 



John 
that he had done this sign. 19 
The Pharisees therefore said 
among themselves. Behold how ye 
prevail nothing; lo, the world is 
gone after him. 



98 PASSION WEEK 



John 

man serve me, him will the Father honor. 27 Now is my soul 
troubled; and what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour. 
But for this cause came I unto this hour. 28 Father, glorify thy name. 
There came therefore a voice out of heaven, saying, I have both 
glorified it, and will glorify it again. 29 The multitude therefore, that 
stood by, and heard it, said that it had thundered : others said, An 
angel hath spoken to him. 30 Jesus answered and said, This voice 
hath not come for my sake, but for your sakes. 31 Now is the 
judgment of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast 
out. 32 And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men 
unto myself. 23 But this he said, signifying by what manner of death 
he should die. 34 The multitude therefore answered him, We have 
heard out of the law that the Christ abideth for ever: and how 
sayest thou. The Son of man must be lifted up? who is this Son of 
man? 35 Jesus therefore said unto them, Yet a little while is the light 
among you. Walk while ye have the light, that darkness overtake you 
not: and he that walketh in the darkness knoweth not whither he 
goeth. 36 While ye have the light, believe on the light, that ye may 
become sons of light. 

7. SATURDAY: The Jews' Rejection of Jesus 

John 12 : 37-50 

27 But though he had done so many signs before them, yet they 
believed not on him : 38 that the word of Isaiah the prophet might be 
fulfilled, which he spake. 

Lord, who hath beHeved our report? 

And to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed? 

39 For this cause they could not believe, for that Isaiah said again, 

40 He hath blinded their eyes, and he hardened their heart; 

Lest they should see with their eyes, and perceive with their heart, 

And should turn. 

And I should heal them. 

41 These things said Isaiah, because he saw his glory; and he spake 
of him. 42 Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed on him ; but 
because of the Pharisees they did not confess it, lest they should be 
put out of the synagogue: 43 for they loved the glory that is of men 
more than the glory that is of God. 

44 And Jesus cried and said. He that believeth on me, believeth 
not on me, but on him that sent me. 45 And he that beholdeth me 
beholdeth him that sent me. 46 I am come a light into the world, 
that whosoever believeth on me may not abide in the darkness. 47 
And if any man hear my sayings, and keep them not, I judge him not: 
for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world. 48 He 
that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my sayings, hath one that 



HARMONY 



99 



John 

judgeth him: the word that I spake, the same shall judge him in the 
last day. 49 For I spake not from myself; but the Father that sent 
me, he hath given me a commandment, what I should say, and what I 
should speak. 50 And I know that his commandment is life eternal; 
the things therefore which I speak, even as the Father hath said unto 
me, so I speak. 



8. SUNDAY: Blighting of the Fig Tree 



Matt. 21 : 18, 19 

18 Now in the morning as he 
returned to the city, he hungered. 
19 And seeing a fig tree by the 
way side, he came to it, and found 
nothing thereon, but leaves only; 
and he saith unto it. Let there 
be no fruit from thee hencefor- 
ward for ever. And immediately 
the fig tree withered away. 



Mark ii : 12-14 

12 And on the morrow, when 
they were come out from Bethany, 
he hungered. 13 And seeing a 
fig tree afar off having leaves, he 
came, if haply he might find any- 
thing thereon: and when he came 
to it, he found nothing but leaves ; 
for it was not the season of figs. 
14 And he answered and said unto 
it. No man eat fruit from thee 
henceforward for ever. And his 
disciples heard it. 



9. SUNDAY: Cleansing of the Temple 



Matt. 21 : 12-17 

12 And Jesus en- 
tered into the temple 
of God, and cast out 
all them that sold and 
bought in the tem- 
ple, and overthrew the 
tables of the money- 
changers, and the 
them that 
doves ; 13 
saith unto 
is written, 
be 
of 



seats of 

sold the 

and he 

them. It 

My house shall 

called a house 



prayer: but ye make 
it a den of robbers. 
14 And the blind and 



Mark ii : 15-19 
15 And they come 
to Jerusalem : and he 
entered into the 
temple, and began to 
cast out them that 
sold and them that 
bought in the temple, 
and overthrew the 
tables of the money- 
changers, and the 
seats of them that 
sold the doves ; 16 
and he would not 
suffer that any man 
should carry a vessel 
through the temple. 
17 And he taught, 



Luke 19 : 45-48 

45 And he entered 
into the temple, and 
began to cast out 
them that sold, 46 say- 
ing unto them. It is 
written. And my house 
shall be a house of 
prayer: but ye have 
made it a den of rob- 
bers. 

47 And he was 
teaching daily in the 
temple. But the chief 
priests and the scribes 
and the principal men 
of the people sought 
to destroy him : 48 



100 



PASSION WEEK 



Matthew 

the lame came to him 
in the temple; and he 
healed them. 15 But 
when the chief priests 
and the scribes saw 
the wonderful things 
that he did, and the 
children that were 
crying in the temple 
and saying, Hosanna 
to the son of David; 
they were moved with 
indignation, 16 and 
said unto him, Hear- 
est thou what these 
are saying? And Je- 
sus saith unto them, 
Yea: did ye never 
read. Out of the 
mouth of babes and 
sucklings thou hast 
perfected praise? 17 
And he left them, 
and went forth out 
of the city to Beth- 
any, and lodged there. 



Mark 

and said unto them, 
Is it not written. My 
house shall be called 
a house of prayer for 
all the nations? but 
ye have made it a 
den of robbers. 18 
And the chief priests 
and the scribes heard 
it, and sought how 
they might destroy 
him: for they feared 
him, for all the mul- 
titude was astonished 
at his teaching. 

19 And every eve- 
ning he went forth 
out of the city. 



Luke 

and they could not 
find what they might 
do; for the people all 
hung upon him, 
listening. 



10. MONDAY: The Fig Tree Withered 



Matt. 21 : 20-22 
20 And when the disciples saw 
it, they marvelled, saying, How 
did the fig tree immediately wither 
away? 21 And Jesus answered 
and said unto them, Verily I say 
unto you. If ye have faith, and 
doubt not, ye shall not only do 
what is done to the fig tree, but 
even if ye shall say unto this 
mountain, Be thou taken up and 
cast into the sea, it shall be done. 
22 And all things, whatsoever ye 
shall ask in prayer, believing, ye 
shall receive. 



Mark ii : 20-25 
20 And as they passed by in the 
morning, they saw the fig tree 
withered away from the roots. 
21 And Peter calling to remem- 
brance saith unto him, Rabbi, be- 
hold, the fig tree which thou 
cursedst is withered away. 22 And 
Jesus answering saith unto them, 
Have faith in God. 23 Verily I 
say unto you, Whosoever shall 
say unto this mountain. Be thou 
taken up and cast into the sea; 
and shall not doubt in his heart, 
but shall believe that what he 



HARMONY 



lOl 



Mark 

saitli Cometh to pass; he shall 
have it. 24 Therefore I say unto 
you, All things whatsoever ye 
pray and ask for, believe that ye 
receive tliem, and ye shall have 
them. 25 And whensoever ye 
stand praying, forgive, if ye have 
aught against any one; that your 
Father also who is in heaven may 
forgive you your trespasses. 



II. MONDAY: Jesus' Authority Challenged 



Matt. 21 : 23-27 

22 And when he 
was come into the 
temple, the chief 
priests and the elders 
of the people came 
unto him as he was 
teaching, and said. By 
what authority doest 
thou these things? 
and who gave thee 
this authority ? 24 
And Jesus answered, 
and said unto them, I 
also will ask you one 
question, which if ye 
tell me, I likewise 
will tell you by what 
authority I do these 
things. 25 The bap- 
tism of John, whence 
was it? from heaven 
or from men? And 
they reasoned with 
themselves, saying, 
If we shall say, From 
heaven; he will say 
unto us. Why then 
did ye not believe 
him? 26 But if we 
shall say. From men; 



Mark ii : 27-33 

27 And they come 
again to Jerusalem : 
and as he was walk- 
ing in the temple, 
there come to him 
the chief priests, and 
the scribes, and the 
elders; 28 and they 
said unto him. By 
what authority doest 
thou these things? or 
who gave thee this 
authority to do these 
things? 29 And Je- 
sus said unto them, I 
will ask of you one 
question, and answer 
me, and I will tell 
you by what au- 
thority I do these 
things. 30 The bap- 
tism of John, was it 
from heaven, or from 
men? answer me. 31 
And they reasoned 
with themselves, say- 
ing, If we shall say, 
From heaven; he will 
say, Why then did ye 
not believe him? 32 



Luke 20 : 1-8 

I And it came to 
pass, on one of the 
days, as he was 
teaching the people 
in the temple, and 
preaching the gospel, 
there came upon him 
the chief priests and 
the scribes with the 
elders; 2 and they 
spake, saying unto 
him, Tell us : By what 
authority doest thou 
these things? or who 
is he that gave thee 
this authority? 3 And 
he answered and said 
unto them, I also will 
ask you a question; 
and tell me: 4 The 
baptism of John, was 
it from heaven, or 
from men? 5 And 
they reasoned with 
themselves, saying, If 
we shall say, From 
heaven; he will say. 
Why did ye not be- 
lieve him? 6 But if 
we shall say. From 



102 



PASSION WEEK 



Matthew 

we fear the multi- 
tude; for all hold 
John as a prophet. 
27 And they an- 
swered Jesus, and 
said, We know not. 
He also said unto 
them, Neither tell I 
you by what authority 
I do these things. 



Mark 

But should we say, 
From me n — t hey 
feared the people : for 
all verily held John 
to be a prophet. 33 
And they answered 
Jesus and say. We 
know not. And Jesus 
saith unto them, 
Neither tell I you by 
what authority I do 
these things. 



Luke 

men; all the people 
will stone us: for 
they are persuaded 
that John was a 
prophet. 7 And they 
answered, that they 
knew not whence it 
was. 8 And Jesus 
said unto them. 
Neither tell I you by 
what authority I do 
these things. 



12. MONDAY: Three Parables of Warning 



Matt. 21 :28 to 22:14 

28 But what think 
ye? A man had two 
sons; and he came to 
the first, and said. 
Son, go work to-day 
in the vineyard. 29 
And he answered and 
said, I will not: but 
afterward he repented 
himself, and went. 30 
And he came to the 
second, and said like- 
wise. And he an- 
swered and said, I go, 
sir: and went not. 31 
Which of the two did 
the will of his father? 
They say, The first. 
Jesus saith unto them, 
Verily I say unto you, 
that the publicans and 
the harlots go into 
the kingdom of God 
before you. 32 For 
John came unto you 
in the way of right- 
eousness, and ye be- 
lieved him not; but 
the publicans and the 



Mark 12 : 1-12 
I And he began to 
speak unto them in 
parables. A man 
planted a vineyard, 
and set a hedge about 
it, and digged a pit 
for the winepress, and 
built a tower, and 
let it out to husband- 
men, and went into 
another country. 2 
And at the season he 
sent to the husband- 
men a servant, that 
he might receive from 
the husbandmen of 
the fruits of the vine- 
yard. 3 And they took 
him, and beat him, 
and sent him away 
empty. 4 And again 
he sent unto them an- 
other servant ; and 
him they wounded 
in the head, and 
h a n died shamefully. 
5 And he sent an- 
other; and him they 
killed : and many 



Luke 20 : 9-19 
9 And he began to 
speak unto the people 
this parable: A man 
planted a vineyard, 
and let it out to hus- 
bandmen, and went 
into another country 
for a long time. 10 
And at the season he 
sent unto the hus- 
bandmen a servant, 
that they should give 
him of the fruit of 
the vineyard: but the 
husbandmen beat him, 
and sent him away 
empty. 11 And he 
sent yet another serv- 
ant: and him also 
they beat, and handled 
him shamefully, and 
sent him away empty. 
12 And he sent yet a 
third : and him also 
they wounded, and 
cast him forth. 13 
And the lord of the 
vineyard said, What 
shall I do? I will 



HARMONY 



103 



Matthew 
harlots believed him: 
and ye, when ye saw 
it, did not even re- 
pent yourselves after- 
ward, that ye might 
believe him. 

Z3 Hear another 
parable: There was a 
man that was a house- 
holder, who planted a 
vineyard, and set a 
hedge about it, and 
digged a wine- 
press in it, and built 
a tower, and let it out 
to husbandmen, and 
went into another 
country. 34 And 
when the season of 
the fruits drew near, 
he sent his servants 
to the husbandmen, 
to receive his fruits. 

35 And the husband- 
men took his serv- 
ants, and beat one, 
and killed another, 
and stoned another, 

36 Again, he sent 
other servants more 
than the first: and 
they did unto them in 
like manner. 2>7 But 
afterward he sent 
unto them his son, 
saying. They will 
reverence my son. 38 
But the husbandmen, 
when they saw the 
son, said among them- 
selves, This is the 
heir; come, let us kill 
him, and take his in- 
heritance. 39 And 
they took him, and 



Mark 
others; beating some, 
and killing some. 6 
He had yet one, a be- 
loved son : he sent 
him last unto them, 
saying, They will 
reverence my son. 7 
But those husband- 
men said among them- 
selves, This is the 
heir; come, let us kill 
him, and the inherit- 
ance shall be ours. 8 
And they took him, 
and killed him, and 
cast him forth out of 
the vineyard. 9 What 
therefore will the lord 
of the vineyard do? 
he will come and des- 
troy the husbandmen, 
and Mrill give the 
vineyard unto others. 

10 Have ye not read 
even this scripture : 

The stone which 
the builders re- 
jected. 

The same was 
made the head 
of the corner; 

11 This was from the 

Lord, 
And it is marvel- 
lous in our eyes? 

12 And they sought to 
lay hold on him; and 
they feared the multi- 
tude; for they per- 
ceived that he spake 
the parable against 
them: and they left 
him, and went away. 



Luke 

send my beloved son; 
it may be they will 
reverence him. 14 
But when the hus- 
bandmen saw him, 
they reasoned one 
with another, saying. 
This is the heir; let 
us kill him, that the 
inheritance may be 
ours. 15 And they 
cast him forth out of 
the vineyard, and 
killed him. What 
therefore will the lord 
of the vineyard do 
unto them? 16 He 
will come and destroy 
these husbandmen, 
and will give the 
vineyard unto others. 
And when they heard 
it, they said, God for- 
bid. 17 But he looked 
upon them, and said, 
What then is this 
that is written, 

The stone which 
the builders re- 
jected. 
The same was 
made the head 
of the corner? 
18 Every one that 
falleth on that stone 
shall be broken to 
pieces; but on whom- 
soever it shall fall, it 
will scatter him as 
dust. 

19 And the scribes 
and the chief priests 
sought to lay hands 
on him in that very 
hour; and they feared 



104 PASSION WEEK 



Matthew 

cast him forth out of 
the vineyard, and 
killed him. 40 When 
therefore the lord of 



Luke 

the people: for they 
perceived that he 
spake this parable 
against them. 



the vineyard shall come, what will he do unto those husbandmen? 41 
They say unto him, He will miserably destroy those miserable men, 
and will let out the vineyard unto other husbandmen, who shall render 
him the fruits in their seasons. 42 Jesus saith unto them, Did ye 
never read in the scriptures. 

The stone which the builders rejected. 

The same was made the head of the corner; 

This was from the Lord, 

And it is marvellous in our eyes? 
43 Therefore say I unto you, The kingdom of God shall be taken 
away from you, and shall be given to a nation bringing forth the 
fruits thereof. 44 And he that falleth on this stone shall be broken 
to pieces: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will scatter him as dust. 
45 And when the chief priests and the Pharisees heard his parables, 
they perceived that he spake of them. 46 And when they sought to 
lay hold on him, they feared the multitudes, because they took him 
for a prophet. 

22 : I And Jesus answered and spake again in parables unto them, 
saying, 2 The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a certain king, 
who made a marriage feast for his son, 3 and sent forth his servants 
to call them that were bidden to the marriage feast: and they would 
not come. 4 Again he sent forth other servants, saying. Tell them 
that are bidden, Behold, I have made ready my dinner; my oxen and 
my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready: come to the 
marriage feast. 5 But they made light of it, and went their ways, 
one to his own farm, another to his merchandise; 6 and the rest laid 
hold on his servants, and treated them shamefully, and killed them. 
7 But the king was wroth ; and he sent his armies, and destroyed those 
murderers, and burned their city. 8 Then saith he to his servants. 
The wedding is ready, but they that were bidden were not worthy. 
9 Go ye therefore unto the partings of the highways, and as many as 
ye shall find, bid to the marriage feast. 10 And those servants went 
out into the highways, and gathered together all as many as they 
found, both bad and good: and the wedding was filled with guests. 11 
But when the king came in to behold the guests, he saw there a man 
who had not on a wedding-garment : 12 and he saith unto him, Friend, 
how camest thou in hither not having a wedding-garment? And he 
was speechless. 13 Then the king said to the servants. Bind him hand 
and foot, and cast him out into the outer darkness; there shall be 
the weeping and the gnashing of teeth. 14 For many are called, but 
few chosen. 



HARMONY 



105 



13. MONDAY: Three Questions by the Jewish Rulers 



Matt. 22 : 15-40 
15 Then went the 
Pharisees, and took 
counsel how they 
might ensnare him in 
his talk. 16 And they 
send to him their dis- 
ciples, with the Her- 
odians, saying, Teach- 
er, we know that thou 
art true, and teachest 
the way of God in 
truth, and carest not 
for any one : for thou 
regardest not the per- 
son of men. 17 Tell 
us therefore. What 
thinkest thou? Is it 
lawful to give tribute 
unto Caesar, or not? 
18 But Jesus perceived 
their wickedness, and 
said. Why make ye 
trial of me, ye hypo- 
crites? 19 Show me 
the tribute money. 
And they brought un- 
to him a denarius. 20 
And he saith unto 
them. Whose is this 
image and superscrip- 
tion? 21 They say 
unto him, Caesar's. 
Then he saith unto 
them, Render there- 
fore unto Caesar the 
things that are Cae- 
sar's; and unto God 
the things that are 
God's. 22 And when 
they heard it, they 
marvelled, and left 
him, and went away. 
23 On that day 

H 



Mark 12 : 13-34 
13 And they send 
unto him certain of 
the Pharisees and of 
the Herodians, that 
they might catch him 
in talk. 14 And when 
they were come, they 
say unto him, Teacher, 
we know that thou 
art true, and carest 
not for any one; for 
thou regardest not 
the person of men, 
but of a truth teach- 
est the way of God: 
Is it lawful to give 
tribute unto Caesar, 
or not? 15 Shall we 
give, or shall we not 
give? But he, know- 
ing their hypocrisy, 
said unto them, Why 
make ye trial of me? 
bring me a denarius, 
that I may see it. 16 
And they brought it. 
And he saith unto 
them, Whose is this 
image and superscrip- 
tion? And they said 
unto him, Caesar's. 17 
And Jesus said unto 
them, Render unto 
Caesar the things that 
are Caesar's, and unto 
God the things that 
are God's. And they 
marvelled greatly at 
him. 



18 And there come 



Luke 20 : 20-40 

20 And they watched 
him, and sent forth 
spies, who feigned 
t h e m s e Ives to be 
righteous, that they 
might take hold of 
his speech, so as to 
deliver him up to the 
rule and to the au- 
thority of the gov- 
ernor. 21 And they 
asked h i m, saying, 
Teacher, we know 
that thou sayest and 
teachest rightly, and 
acceptest not the per- 
son of any, but of a 
truth teachest the 
way of God : 22 Is it 
lawful for us to give 
tribute unto Caesar, or 
not? 23 But he per- 
ceived their crafti- 
ness, and said unto 
them, 24 Show me a 
denarius. Whose im- 
age and superscrip- 
tion hath it? And 
they said, Caesar's. 
25 And he said unto 
them, Then render 
unto Caesar the things 
that are Caesar's, and 
unto God the things 
that are God's. 26 
And they were not 
able to take hold of 
the saying before the 
people : and they 
marvelled at his an- 
swer, and held their 
peace. 
27 And there came 



io6 



PASSION WEEK 



Matthew 

there came to him 
Sadducees, they that 
say that there is no 
resurrection : and they 
asked him, 24 saying, 
Teacher, Moses said. 
If a man die, having 
no children, his 
brother shall marry 
his wife, and raise 
up seed unto his 
brother. 25 Now 
there were with us 
seven brethren : and 
the first married and 
deceased, and having 
no seed left his wife 
unto his brother; 26 
in like manner the 
second also, and the 
third, unto the sev- 
enth. 27 And after 
them all, the woman 
died. 28 In the resur- 
rection therefore 
whose wife shall she 
be of the seven? for 
they all had her. 29 
But Jesus answered 
and said unto them, 
Ye do err, not know- 
ing the scriptures, 
nor the power of God, 

30 For in the resur- 
rection they neither 
marry, nor are given 
in marriage, but are 
as angels in heaven. 

31 But as touching 
the resurrection of 
the dead, have ye not 
read that which was 
spoken unto you by 
God, saying, 32 I am 
the God of Abraham, 



Mark 
unto him Sadducees, 
who say that there is 
no resurrection ; and 
they asked him, say- 
ing, 19 Teacher, 
Moses wrote unto us. 
If a man's brother 
die, and leave a wife 
behind him, and leave 
no child, that his 
brother should take 
his wife, and raise up 
seed unto his brother. 
20 There were seven 
brethren : and the 
first took a wife, and 
dying left no seed; 21 
and the second took 
her, and died, leaving 
no seed behind him ; 
and the third like- 
wise : 22 and the seven 
left no seed. Last of 
all the woman also 
died. 23 In the resur- 
rection whose wife 
shall she be of them? 
for the seven had 
her to wife. 24 Je- 
sus said unto them, 
Is it not for this 
cause that ye err, 
that ye know not the 
scriptures, nor the 
power of God? For 
when they shall rise 
from the dead, they 
neither marry, nor are 
given in marriage ; 
but are as angels in 
heaven. 26 But as 
touching the dead, 
that they are raised; 
have ye not read in 
the book of Moses, 



Luke 

to him certain of the 
Sadducees, they that 
say that there is no 
resurrection ; 28 and 
they asked him, say- 
ing. Teacher, Moses 
wrote unto us, that 
if a man's brother 
die, having a wife, 
and he be childless, 
his brother should 
take the wife, and 
raise up seed unto his 
brother. 29 There 
were therefore seven 
brethren : and the 
first took a wife, and 
died childless; 30 and 
the second; 31 and 
the third took her; 
and likewise the 
seven also left no 
children, and died. 
32 Afterward the 
woman also died. 33 
In the resurrection 
therefore whose wife 
of them shall she be? 
for the seven had her 
to wife. 34 And Je- 
sus said unto them, 
The sons of this 
world marry, and are 
given in marriage: 35 
but they that are ac- 
counted worthy to at- 
tain to that world, 
and the resurrection 
from the dead, neither 
marry, nor are given 
in marriage: 36 for 
neither can they die 
any more: for they 
are equal unto the 
angels; and are sons 



HARMONY 



107 



Matthew 

and the God of 
Isaac, and the God of 
Jacob ? God is not the 
God of the dead, but 
of the living. 33 And 
when the multitudes 
heard it, they were 
astonished at his 
teaching. 



34 But the Phari- 
sees, when they heard 
that he had put the 
Sadducees to silence, 
gathered themselves 
together. 35 And one 
of them, a lawyer, 
asked him a question, 
trying him : 36 Teach- 
er, which is the great 
commandment in the 
law? S7 And he said 
unto him, Thou shalt 
love the Lord thy 
God with all thy 
heart, and with all 
thy soul, and with all 
thy mind. 38 This is 
the great and first 
commandment. 
39 And a second like 
unto it is this, Thou 
shalt love thy neigh- 
bor as thyself. 40 
On these two com- 
mandments the whole 
law hangeth, and the 
prophets. 



Mark 

in the place concern- 
ing the Bush, how 
God spake unto him, 
saying, I am the God 
of Abraham, and the 
God of Isaac, and the 
God of Jacob? 27 
He is not the God of 
the dead, but of the 
living: ye do greatly 
err. 

28 And one of the 
scribes came, and 
heard them question- 
ing together, and 
knowing that he had 
answered them well, 
asked' him, What com- 
mandment is the first 
of all? 29 Jesus an- 
swered, The first is, 
Hear, O Israel; The 
Lord our God, the 
Lord is one : 30 and 
thou shalt love the 
Lord thy God with 
all thy heart, and with 
all thy soul, and with 
all thy mind, and 
with all thy strength. 
31 The second is this. 
Thou shalt love thy 
neighbor as thyself. 
There is none other 
commandment greater 
than these. 32 And 
the scribe said unto 
him. Of a truth, 
Teacher, thou hast 
well said that he is 
one; and there is 
none other but he : 
S3 and to love him 
with all the heart, 
and with all the 



Luke 

of God, being sons of 
the resurrection. ;^7 
But that the dead aie 
raised, even Moses 
showed, in the place 
concerning the Bush, 
when he calleth the 
Lord the God of 
Abraham, and t h q 
God of Isaac, and the 
God of Jacob. 38 
Now he is not the 
God of the dead, but 
of the living: for all 
live unto him. 39 
And certain of the 
scribes answering said, 
Teacher, thou hast 
well said. 40 For 
they durst not any 
more ask him any 
question. 



io8 



PASSION WEEK 



Mark 

understanding, and 
with all the strength, 
and to love his neigh- 
bor as himself, is 
much more than all 
whole burnt-offerings 
and sacrifices. 34 And 
when Jesus saw that 
he answered discreet- 
ly, he said unto him, 
Thou art not far 
from the kingdom of 
God. And no man 
after that durst ask 
him any question. 



14. MONDAY: Jesus' Unanswerable Question 



Matt. 22 : 41-46 

41 Now while the 
Pharisees were gath- 
ered together, Jesus 
asked them a ques- 
tion, 42 saying, What 
think ye of the Christ ? 
whose son is he? 
They say unto him. 
The son of David. 

43 He saith unto 
them. How then doth 
David in the Spirit 
call him Lord, saying, 

44 The Lord said un- 

to my Lord, 
Sit thou on my 

right hand, 
Till I put thine 
enemies under- 
neath thy feet? 

45 If David then 
calleth him Lord, how 
is he his son? 46 And 
no one was able to 
answer him a word, 
neither durst any man 



Mark 12 : 35-37 

35 And Jesus an- 
swered and said, as 
he taught in the 
temple, How say the 
scribes that the Christ 
is the son of David? 

36 David himself said 
in the Holy Spirit, 

The Lord said un- 
to my Lord, 

Sit thou on my 
right hand, 

Till I make thine 
enemies the foot- 
stool of thy feet. 

37 David himself call- 
eth him Lord; and 
whence is he his son? 
And the common peo- 
ple heard him gladly. 



Luke 20 : 41-44 
41 And he said 
unto them, How say 
they that the Christ 
is David's son? 42 
For David himself 
saith in the book of 
Psalms, 

The Lord said un- 
to my Lord, 
Sit thou on my 
right hand, 

43 Till I make thine 

enemies the foot- 
stool of thy feet. 

44 David therefore 
calleth him Lord, and 
how is he his son? 



HARMONY 



109 



Matthew 
from that day forth 
ask him any more 
questions. 



15. TUESDAY: Woes Against the Scribes and Pharisees 



Mark 12 : 38-40 
38 And in his teach- 
ing he said, Beware of 
the scribes, who de- 
sire to walk in long 
robes, and to have 
salutations in the 
marketplaces, 39 and 
chief seats in the 
synagogues, and chief 
places at feasts : 40 
they- that devour 
widows' houses, and 
for a pretence make 
long prayers ; these 
shall receive greater 
condemnation. 



Luke 20 : 45-47 
45 And in the hear- 
ing of all the people 
he said unto his dis- 
ciples, 46 Beware of 
the scribes, who desire 
to walk in long robes, 
and love salutations 
in the marketplaces, 
and chief seats in 
the synagogues, and 
chief places at feasts ; 
47 who devour 
widows* houses, and 
for a pretence make 
long prayers : these 
shall receive greater 
condemnation. 



Matt. 23 : 1-39 

I Then spake Jesus 
to the multitudes and 
to his disciples, 2 say- 
ing, The scribes and 
the Pharisees sit on 
Moses' seat: 3 all 
things therefore what- 
soever they bid you, 
these do and observe : 
but do not ye after 
their works; for they 
say, and do not. 4 
Yea, they bind heavy 
burdens and grievous 
to be borne, and lay 
them on men's shoul- 
ders; but they them- 
selves will not move 
them with their finger. 
5 But all their works they do to be seen of men : for they make broad 
their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their garments, 6 and 
love the chief place at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues, 
7 and the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called of men, 
Rabbi. 8 But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your teacher, and 
all ye are brethren. 9 And call no man your father on the earth: 
for one is your Father, even he who is in heaven. 10 Neither be ye 
called masters: for one is your master, even the Christ. 11 But he 
that is greatest among you shall be your servant. 12 And whosoever 
shall exalt himself shall be humbled; and whosoever shall humble 
himself shall be exalted. 

13 But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye 
shut the kingdom of heaven against men : for ye enter not in your- 
selves, neither suffer ye them that are entering in to enter. 

15 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye compass 
sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he is become so, ye 
make him twofold more a son of hell than yourselves. 

16 Woe unto you, ye blind guides, that say, Whosoever shall swear 
by the temple, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gold 



no PASSION WEEK 



Matthew 
of the temple, he is a debtor. 17 Ye fools and blind: for which is 
greater, the gold, or the temple that hath sanctified the gold? 18 And, 
Whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever shall 
swear by the gift that is upon it, he is a debtor. 19 Ye blind: for 
which is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift? 20 
He therefore that sweareth by the altar, sweareth by it, and by all 
things thereon. 21 And he that sweareth by the temple, sweareth by 
it, and by him that dwelleth therein. 22 And he that sweareth by 
the heaven, sweareth by the throne of God, and by him that sitteth 
thereon, 

2^ Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye tithe 
mint and anise and cummin, and have left undone the weightier 
matters of the law, justice, and mercy, and faith: but these ye ought 
to have done, and not to have left the other undone. 24 Ye blind 
guides, that strain out the gnat, and swallow the camel ! 

25 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye cleanse 
the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full 
from extortion and excess. 26 Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first the 
inside of the cup and of the platter, that the outside thereof may 
become clean also. 

27 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are hke 
unto whited sepulchres, which outwardly appear beautiful, but in- 
wardly are full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. 28 Even 
so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but inwardly ye are 
full of hypocrisy and iniquity. 

29 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for yt build the 
sepulchres of the prophets, and garnish the tombs of the righteous, 30 
and say. If we had been in the days of our fathers, we should not have 
been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets. 31 Wherefore 
ye witness to yourselves, that ye are sons of them that slew the 
prophets. 32 Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers. 33 Ye 
serpents, ye offspring of vipers, how shall ye escape the judgment of 
hell? 34 Therefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, 
and scribes: some of them shall ye kill and crucify; and some of them 
shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute from city to city : 
35 that upon you may come all the righteous blood shed on the earth, 
from the blood of Abel the righteous unto the blood of Zachariah son of 
Barachiah, whom ye slew between the sanctuary and the altar, z^ Verily 
I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation. 

Z7 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, that killeth the prophets, and stoneth 
them that are sent unto her! how often would I have gathered thy 
children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her 
wings, and ye would not! 38 Behold, your house is left unto you 
desolate. 39 For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till 
ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. 



HARMONY 



III 



i6. TUESDAY; The Widow's Two Mites 



Mark 12 : 41-44 
41 And he sat down over 
against the treasury, and beheld 
how the multitude cast money 
into the treasury: and many that 
were rich cast in much. 42 And 
there came a poor widow, and 
she cast in two mites, which 
make a farthing. 43 And he 
called unto him his disciples, and 
said unto them, Verily I say unto 
you, This poor widow cast in 
more than all they that are cast- 
ing into the treasury: 44 for they 
all did cast in of their super- 
fluity; but she of her want did 
cast in all that she had, even all 
her living. 



Luke 21 : 1-4 

I And he looked up, and saw 
the rich men that were casting 
their gifts into the treasury. 2 
And he saw a certain poor widow 
casting in thither two mites. 3 
And he said. Of a truth I say 
unto you. This poor widow cast 
in more than they all: 4 for all 
these did of their superfluity cast 
in unto the gifts; but she of her 
want did cast in all the living 
that she had. 



17. TUESDAY: The Desolation of Jerusalem, and End of Age 



Matt. 24 and 25 

I And Jesus went 
out from the temple, 
and was going on his 
way; and his disciples 
came to him to show 
him the buildings of 
the temple. 2 But he 
answered and said 
unto them, See ye not 
all these things? ver- 
ily I say unto you, 
There shall not be 
left here one stone 
upon another, that 
shall not be thrown 
down. 

3 And as he sat on 
the mount of Olives, 
the disciples came un- 
to him privately, say- 
ing, Tell us, when 
shall these things be? 



Mark 13 

I And as he went 
forth out of the 
temple, one of his dis- 
ciples saith unto him, 
Teacher, behold, what 
manner of stones and 
what manner of 
buildings ! 2 And Je- 
sus said unto him, 
Seest thou these great 
buildings? there shall 
not be left here one 
stone upon another, 
which shall not be 
thrown down. 

3 And as he sat 
on the mount of 
Olives over against 
the temple, Peter and 
James and John and 
Andrew asked him 
privately, 4 Tell us. 



Luke 21 : 5-38 

5 And as some 
spake of the temple, 
how it was adorned 
with goodly stones 
and offerings, he said, 
6 As for these things 
which ye behold, the 
days will come, in 
which there shall not 
be left here one stone 
upon another, that 
shall not be thrown 
down. 7 And they 
asked him, saying, 
Teacher, when there- 
fore shall these things 
be ? and what shall be 
the sign when these 
things are about to 
come to pass? 8 And 
he said, Take heed 
that ye be not led 



112 



PASSION WEEK 



Matthew 

and what shall he 
the sign of thy com- 
ing, and of the end 
of the world ? 4 
And Jesus answered 
and said unto them, 
Take heed that no 
man lead you astray. 
5 For many shall 
come in my name, 
saying, I am the 
Christ ; and shall lead 
many astray. 6 And 
ye shall hear of wars 
and rumors of wars; 
see that ye be not 
troubled : for these 
things must needs 
come to pass ; but the 
end is not yet. 7 
For nation shall rise 
against nation, and 
kingdom aga i nst 
kingdom; and there 
shall be famines and 
earthquakes in divers 
places. 8 But all 
these things are the 
beginning of travail. 
9 Then shall they 
deliver you up unto 
tribulation, and shall 
kill you: and ye shall 
be hated of all the 
nations for my name's 
sake. 10 And then 
shall many stumble, 
and shall deliver up 
one another, and shall 
hate one another. 11 
And many false 
prophets shall arise, 
and shall lead many 
astray. 12 And be- 
cause iniquity shall be 



Mark 
when shall these 
things be? and what 
shall he the sign when 
these things are all 
about to be accom- 
plished? 5 And Je- 
sus began to say unto 
them. Take heed that 
no man lead you 
astray. 6 Many shall 
come in my name, 
saying, I am he; and 
shall lead many astray. 
7 And when ye shall 
hear of wars and 
rumors of wars, be 
not troubled : these 
things must needs 
come to pass ; but the 
end is not yet. 8 For 
nation shall rise 
against nation, and 
kingdom against king- 
dom ; there shall be 
earthquakes in divers 
places; there shall be 
famines: these things 
are the beginning of 
travail. 

9 But take ye heed 
to yourselves : for 
they shall deliver you 
up to councils; and in 
synagogues shall ye 
be beaten ; and before 
governors and kings 
shall ye stand for my 
sake, for a testimony 
unto them. 10 And 
the gospel must first 
be preached unto all 
the nations. 11 And 
when they lead you to 
judgment, and deliver 
you up, be not anx- 



LUKE 

astray : for many 
shall come in my 
name, saying, I am 
he; and. The time is 
at hand: go ye not 
after them. 9 And 
when ye shall hear of 
wars and tumults, be 
not terrified : for these 
things must needs 
come to pass first; 
but the end is not 
immediately. 

ID Then said he 
unto them. Nation 
shall rise against na- 
tion, and kingdom 
against kingdom ; 1 1 
and there shall be 
great earthquakes, and 
in divers places fam- 
ines and pestilences ; 
and there shall be 
terrors and great 
signs from heaven. 
12 But before all these 
things, they shall lay 
their hands on you, 
and shall persecute 
you, delivering you 
up to the synagogues 
and prisons, bringing 
you before kings and 
governors for my 
name's sake. 13 It 
shall turn out unto 
you for a testimony. 
14 Settle it therefore 
in your hearts, not to 
meditate beforehand 
how to answer: 15 
for I will give you a 
mouth and wisdom, 
which all your ad- 
versaries shall not be 



HARMONY 



113 



Matthew 
multiplied, the love of 
the many shall wax 
cold. 13 But he that 
endureth to the end, 
the same shall be 
saved. 14 And this 
gospel of the kingdom 
shall be preached in 
the whole world for 
a testimony unto all 
the nations; and then 
shall the end come. 



15 When therefore 
ye see the abomina- 
tion of desolation, 
which was spoken of 
through Daniel the 
prophet, standing in 
the holy place (let 
him that readeth un- 
derstand), 16 then let 
them that are in 
Judsea flee unto the 
mountains : 17 let him 
that Is on the house- 
top not go down to 
take out the things 
that are in his house : 

18 and let him that is 
in the field not return 
back to take his cloak. 

19 But woe unto them 
that are with child 
and to them that give 
suck in those days! 

20 And pray ye that 
your flight be not in 



Mark 

ious beforehand what 
ye shall speak: but 
whatsoever shall be 
given you in that 
hour, that speak ye; 
for it is not ye that 
speak, but the Holy 
Spirit. 12 And broth- 
er shall deliver up 
brother to death, and 
the father his child; 
and children shall rise 
up against parents, and 
cause them to be put 
to death. 13 And ye 
shall be hated of all 
men for my name's 
sake: but he that en- 
dureth to the end, the 
same shall be saved. 

14 But when ye see 
the abomination of 
desolation s t a n ding 
where he ought not 
(let him that readeth 
understand), then let 
them that are in 
Judsea flee unto the 
mountains: 15 and let 
him that is on the 
housetop not go down, 
nor enter in, to take 
anything out of his 
house: 16 and let him 
that is in the field not 
return back to take 
his cloak. 17 But woe 
unto them that are 
with child and to 
them that give suck 
in those days! 18 
And pray ye that it 
be not in the winter. 
19 For those days 
shall be tribulation, 



Luke 

able to withstand or 
to gainsay. 16 But 
ye shall be delivered 
up even by parents, 
and brethren, and 
kinsfolk, and friends ; 
and some of you shall 
they cause to be put 
to death. 17 And ye 
shall be hated of all 
men for my name's 
sake. 18 And not a 
hair of your head shall 
perish. 19 In your 
patience ye shall win 
your souls. 



20 But when ye see 
Jerusalem compassed 
with armies, then 
know that her deso- 
lation is at hand. 21 
Then let them that 
are in Judsea flee unto 
the mountains ; and 
let them that are in 
the midst of her de- 
part out; and let not 
them that are in the 
country enter therein. 

22 For these are days 
of vengeance, that all 
things which are writ- 
ten may be fulfilled. 

23 Woe unto them 
that are with child 
and to them that give 
suck in those days ! 
for there shall be 
great distress upon 
the land, and wrath 
unto this people. 24 



114 



PASSION WEEK 



Matthew 

the winter, neither on 
a sabbath : 21 for 
then shall be great 
tribulation, such as 
hath not been from 
the beginning of the 
world until now, no, 
nor ever shall be. 22 
And except those days 
had been shortened, 
no flesh would have 
been saved: but for 
the elect's sake those 
days shall be short- 
ened. 23 Then if 
any man shall say 
unto you, Lo, here is 
the Christ, or, Here; 
believe it not, 24 For 
there shall arise false 
Christs, and false 
prophets, and shall 
show great signs and 
wonders; so as to 
lead astray, if pos- 
sible, even the elect. 
25 Behold, I have told 
you beforehand. 26 
If therefore they 
shall say unto you. 
Behold, he is in the 
wilderness ; go not 
forth: Behold, he is 
in the inner cham- 
bers; believe it not. 
27 For as the light- 
ning cometh forth 
from the east, and is 
seen even unto the 
west; so shall be the 
coming of the Son of 
man. 28 Whereso- 
ever the carcase is, 
there will the eagles 
be gathered together. 



Mark 
such as there hath not 
been the like from 
the beginning of the 
creation which God 
created until now, and 
never shall be. 20 
And except the Lord 
had shortened the 
days, no flesh would 
have been saved; but 
for the elect's sake, 
whom he chose, he 
shortened the days. 
21 And then if any 
man shall say unto 
you, Lo, here is the 
Christ; or, Lo, there; 
believe it not: 22 for 
there shall arise false 
Christs and false 
prophets, and shall 
show signs and won- 
ders, that they may 
lead astray, if pos- 
sible, the elect. 23 
But take ye heed : be- 
hold, I have told you 
all things beforehand. 



Luke 

And they shall fall by 
the edge of the sword, 
and shall be led cap- 
tive into all the na- 
tions: and Jerusalem 
shall be trodden down 
of the Gentiles, until 
the times of the Gen- 
tiles be fulfilled. 



HARMONY 



115 



Matthew 

29 But immedi- 
ately after the tribu- 
lation of those days 
the sun shall be dark- 
ened, and the moon 
shall not give her 
light, and the stars 
shall fall from heaven, 
and the powers of 
the heavens shall be 
shaken: 30 and then 
shall appear the sign 
of the Son of man in 
heaven : and then shall 
all the tribes of the 
earth mourn, and they 
shall see the Son of 
man coming on the 
clouds of heaven with 
power and great glory. 
31 And he shall send 
forth his angels with 
a great sound of a 
trumpet, and they 
shall gather together 
his elect from the 
four winds, from one 
end of heaven to the 
other. 

32 Now from the 
fig tree learn her par- 
able : when her branch 
is now become ten- 
der, and putteth forth 
its leaves, ye know 
that the summer is 
nigh; 33 even so ye 
also, when ye see all 
these things, know ye 
that he is nigh, even 
at the doors. 34 
Verily I say unto you, 
This generation shall 
not pass away, till all 
these things be ac- 



Mark 
24 But in those 
days, after that tribu- 
lation, the sun shall 
be darkened, and the 
moon shall not give 
her light, 25 and the 
stars shall be falling 
from heaven, and the 
powers that are in the 
heavens shall be 
shaken. 26 And then 
shall they see the Son 
of man coming in 
clouds with great 
power and glory. 27 
And then shall he 
send forth the angels, 
and shall gather to- 
gether his elect from 
the four winds, from 
the uttermost part of 
the earth to the utter- 
most part of heaven. 



28 Now from the fig 
tree learn her par- 
able : when her branch 
is now become tender, 
and putteth forth its 
leaves, ye know that 
the summer is nigh; 
29 even so ye also, 
when ye see these 
things coming to pass, 
know ye that he is 
nigh, even at the 
doors. 30 Verily I 
say unto you. This 
generation shall not 
pass away, imtil all [ 



Luke 

25 And there shall 
be signs in sun and 
moon and stars; and 
upon the earth dis- 
tress of nations, in 
perplexity for the 
roaring of the sea 
and the billows; 26 
men fainting for fear, 
and for expectation 
of the things which 
are coming on the 
world : for the pow- 
ers of the heavens 
shall be shaken, 27 
And then shall they 
see the Son of man 
coming in a cloud 
with power and great 
glory. 28 But when 
these things begin to 
come to pass, look up, 
and lift up your heads ; 
because your redemp- 
tion draweth nigh. 



29 And he spake to 
them a parable: Be- 
hold the fig tree, and 
all the trees : 30 when 
they now shoot forth, 
ye see it and know 
of your own selves 
that the summer is 
now nigh. 31 Even 
so ye also, when ye 
see these things com- 
ing to pass, know ye 
that the kingdom of 
God is nigh, 32 Ver- 
ily I say unto you, 
This generation shall 



ii6 



PASSION WEEK 



Matthew 

complished. 35 Heav- 
en and earth shall pass 
away, but my words 
shall not pass away. 
36 But of that day 
and hour knoweth no 
one, not even the 
angels of heaven, 
neither the Son, but 
the Father only. 37 
And as were the days 
of Noah, so shall be 
the coming of the 
Son of man. 38 For 
as in those days which 
were before the flood 
they were eating and 
drinking,marrying and 
giving in marriage, 
until the day that 
Noah entered into the 
ark, 39 and they knew 
not until the flood 
came, and took them 
all away; so shall be 
the coming of the 
Son of man. 40 Then 
shall two men be in 
the field ; one is taken, 
and one is left: 41 
two women shall be 
grinding at the mill; 
one is taken, and one 
is left. 42 Watch 
therefore : for ye 
know not on what 
day your Lord 
cometh. 43 But know 
this, that if the master 
of the house had 
known in what watch 
the thief was coming, 
he would have watch- 
ed, and would not 
have suffered his 



Mark 

these things be ac- 
complished. 31 Heav- 
en and earth shall 
pass away: but my 
words shall not pass 
away. 32 But of that 
day or that hour 
knoweth no one, not 
even the angels in 
heaven, neither the 
Son, but the Father. 
33 Take ye heed, 
watch and pray: for 
ye know not when 
the time is. 34 It is 
as when a man, so- 
journing in another 
country, having left 
his house, and given 
authority to his serv- 
ants, to each one his 
work, commanded also 
the porter to watch. 
35 Watch therefore: 
for ye know not when 
the lord of the house 
cometh, whether at 
even, or at midnight, 
or at cockcrowing, or 
in the morning; 36 
lest coming suddenly 
he find you sleeping. 
37 And what I say 
unto you I say unto 
all, Watch. 



Luke 

not pass away, till all 
things be accom- 
plished. 33 Heaven 
and earth shall pass 
away: but my words 
shall not pass away. 

34 But take heed to 
yourselves, lest haply 
your hearts be over- 
charged with surfeit- 
ing, and drunkenness, 
and cares of this life, 
and that day come on 
you suddenly as a 
snare: 35 for so shall 
it come upon all 
them that dwell on 
the face of all the 
earth. 36 But watch 
ye at every season, 
making supplication, 
that ye may prevail to 
escape all these things 
that shall come to 
pass, and to stand be- 
fore the Son of man. 

37 And every day 
he was teaching in 
the temple; and every 
night he went out, 
and lodged in the 
mount that is called 
Olivet. 38 And all 
the people came early 
in the morning to him 
in the temple, to hear 
him. 



HARMONY 



117 



Matthew 

house to be broken 
through. 44 There- 
fore be ye also ready ; 
for in an hour that ye 
think not the Son of 
man cometh. 

45 Who then is the 
faithful and wise 
servant, whom his 
lord hath set over his 
household, to give 
them their food in due 
season? 46 Blessed 
is that servant, whom 
his lord when he 
cometh shall find so 
doing. 47 Verily I 
say unto you, that he 
will set him over all 
that he hath. 48 
But if that evil serv- 
ant shall say in his 
heart, My lord tar- 
rieth; 49 and shall 
begin to beat his fel- 
low-servants, and shall 
eat and drink with 
the drunken; 50 the 
lord of that servant 
shall come in a day 
when he expecteth 
not, and in an hour 
when he knoweth not, 
51 and shall cut him 
asunder, and appoint 
his portion with the 
hypocrites : there shall 
be the weeping and 
the gnashing of teeth. 

25 : I Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins, 
who took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom. 2 And 
five of them were foolish, and five were wise. 3 For the foolish, when 
they took their lamps, took no oil with them: 4 but the wise took 
oil in their vessels with their lamps. 5 Now while the bridegroom 
tarried, they all slumbered and slept. 6 But at midnight there is a 



ii8 PASSION WEEK 



Matthew 
cry, Behold, the bridegroom! Come ye forth to meet him. 7 Then 
all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. 8 And the foolish 
said unto the wise, Give us of your oil; for our lamps are going out. 

9 But the wise answered, saying, Peradventure there will not be enough 
for us and you : go ye rather to them that sell, and buy for yourselves. 

10 And while they went away to buy, the bridegroom came; and they 
that were ready went in with him to the marriage feast: and the door 
was shut. II Afterward came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, 
Lord, open to us. I2 But he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, 
I know you not. 13 Watch therefore, for ye know not the day nor 
the hour. 

14 For it is as when a man, going into another country, called his 
own servants, and delivered unto them his goods. 15 And unto one he 
gave five talents, to another two, to another one; to each according 
to his several ability; and he went on his journey. 16 Straightway he 
that received the five talents went and traded with them, and made 
other five talents. 17 In like manner he also that received the two 
gained other two. 18 But he that received the one went away and 
digged in the earth, and hid his lord's money. 19 Now after a long 
time the lord of those servants cometh, and maketh a reckoning with 
them. 20 And he that received the five talents came and brought other 
five talents, saying. Lord, thou deliveredst unto me five talents: lo, I 
have gained other five talents. 21 His lord said unto him, Well done, 
good and faithful servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, 
I will set thee over many things : enter thou into the joy of thy lord. 
22 And he also that received the two talents came and said, Lord, 
thou deliveredst unto me two talents : lo, I have gained other two 
talents. 23 His lord said unto him. Well done, good and faithful 
servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will set thee 
over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord. 24 And he 
also that had received the one talent came and said, Lord, I knew 
thee that thou art a hard man, reaping where thou didst not sow, 
and gathering where thou didst not scatter; 25 and I was afraid, and 
went away and hid thy talent in the earth: lo, thou hast thine own. 
26 But his lord answered and said unto him, Thou wicked and slothful 
servant, thou knewest that I reap where I sowed not, and gather 
where I did not scatter; 27 thou oughtest therefore to have put my 
money to the bankers, and at my coming I should have received back 
mine own with interest. 28 Take ye away therefore the talent from 
him, and give it unto him that hath the ten talents. 29 For unto 
every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance: but 
from him that hath not, even that which he hath shall be taken away. 
30 And cast ye out the unprofitable servant into the outer darkness: 
there shall be the weeping and the gnashing of teeth. 

31 But when the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the 



HARMONY 119 



Matthev/ 
angels with him, then shall he sit on the throne of his glory: 32 and 
before him shall be gathered all the nations: and he shall separate 
them one from another, as the shepherd separateth the sheep from the 
goats; S3 and he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats 
on the left. 34 Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, 
Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you 
from the foundation of the world: 35 for I was hungry, and ye gave 
me to eat ; I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink ; I was a stranger, and 
ye took me in ; 36 naked, and ye clothed me ; I was sick, and ye visited 
me; I was in prison, and ye came unto me. 37 Then shall the righteous 
answer him, saying. Lord, when saw we thee hungry, and fed thee? or 
athirst, and gave thee drink? 38 And when saw we thee a stranger, 
and took thee in? or naked, and clothed thee? 39 And when saw we 
thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee? 40 And the King shall 
answer and say unto them. Verily I say unto you. Inasmuch as ye 
did it unto one of these my brethren, even these least, ye did it unto 
me. 41 Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart 
from me, ye cursed, into the eternal fire which is prepared for the 
devil and his angels: 42 for I was hungry, and ye did not give me 
to eat; I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink; 43 I was a stranger, 
and ye took me not in; naked, and ye clothed me not; sick, and in 
prison, and ye visited me not. 44 Then shall they also answer, saying. 
Lord, when saw we thee hungry, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, 
or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee? 45 Then shall he 
answer them, saying, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not 
unto one of these least, ye did it not unto me. 46 And these shall go 
away into eternal punishment: but the righteous into eternal life. 



120 



PASSION WEEK 



i8. TUESDAY EVENING: Jesus* Further Prediction; His 
Crucifixion Plotted 



Matt. 26 : 1-5 
I And it came to pass, when 
Jesus had finished all these words, 
he said unto his disciples, 2 Ye 
know that after two days the 
passover cometh, and the Son of 
man is delivered up to be cruci- 
fied. 3 Then were gathered to- 
gether the chief priests, and the 
elders of the people, unto the 
court of the high priest, who was 
called Caiaphas: 4 and they took 
counsel together that they might 
take Jesus by subtlety, and kill 
him. 5 But they said, Not dur- 
ing the feast, lest a tumult arise 
among the people. 



Mark 14 : i, 2 

I Now after two days was the 
feast of the passover and the un- 
leavened bread: and the chief 
priests and the scribes sought how 
they might take him with subtlety, 
and kill him : 2 for they said, Not 
during the feast, l^st haply there 
shall be a tumult of the people. 



HARMONY 



121 



Luke 22 : i, 2 
I Now the feast of unleavened 
bread drew nigh, which is called 
the Passover. 2 And the chief 
priests and the scribes sought how 
they might put him to death; for 
they feared the people. 



John 13 : i 

I Now before the feast of the 
passover, Jesus knowing that his 
hour was come that he should 
depart out of this world unto the 
Father, having loved his own that 
were in the world, he loved them 
unto the end. 



19. TUESDAY EVENING: Jesus Anointed in the House of Simon 



Matt. 26 : 6-13 
6 Now when Jesus was in 
Bethany, in the house of Simon 
the leper, 7 there came unto him 
a woman having an alabaster 
cruse of exceeding precious oint- 
ment, and she poured it upon 
his head, as he sat at meat. 8 
But when the disciples saw it, 
they had indignation, saying, To 
what purpose is this waste? 9 
For this ointment might have been 
sold for much, and given to the 
poor. ID But Jesus perceiving it 
said unto them, Why trouble ye 
the woman? for she hath wrought 
a good work upon me. 11 For ye 
have the poor always with you; 
but me ye have not always. 12 
For in that she poured this oint- 
ment upon my body, she did it to 
prepare me for burial. 13 Verily 
I say unto you, Wheresoever this 

I 



Mark 14 : 3-9 
3 And while he was in Bethany 
in the house of Simon the leper, 
as he sat at meat, there came a 
woman having an alabaster cruse 
of ointment of pure nard very 
costly; and she brake the cruse, 
and poured it over his head. 4 
But there were some that had 
indignation among themselves, 
saying, To what purpose hath this 
waste of the ointment been made? 

5 For this ointment might have 
been sold for above three hundred 
shillings, and given to the poor. 
And they murmured against her. 

6 But Jesus said, Let her alone; 
why trouble ye her? she hath 
wrought a good work on me. 7 
For ye have the poor always with 
you, and whensoever ye will ye 
can do them good : but me ye 
have not always. 8 She hath done 



122 



PASSION WEEK 



Matthew 
gospel shall be preached in the 
whole world, that also which this 
woman hath done shall be spoken 
of for a memorial of her. 



Mark 

what she could ; she hath anointed 
my body beforehand for the bury- 
ing. 9 And verily I say unto you, 
Wheresoever the gospel shall be 
preached throughout the whole 
world, that also which this woman 
hath done shall be spoken of 
for a memorial of her. 



20. TUESDAY EVENING: Jesus Washing the Disciples' Feet 

John 13 : 2-26 

2 And during supper, the devil having already put into the heart of 
Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him, 3 Jesus, knowing that 
the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he came forth 
from God, and goeth unto God, 4 riseth from supper, and layeth aside 
his garments; and he took a towel, and girded himself. 5 Then he 
poureth water into the basin, and began to wash the disciples' feet, 
and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was girded. 6 So he 
cometh to Simon Peter. He saith unto him, Lord, dost thou wash 
my feet? 7 Jesus answered and said unto him. What I do thou 
knowest not now; but thou shalt understand hereafter. 8 Peter saith 
unto him. Thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus answered him, If 
I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me. 9 Simon Peter saith 
unto him. Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head, 
10 Jesus saith to him, He that is bathed needeth not save to wash 
his feet, but is clean every whit: and ye are clean, but not all. 11 For 
he knew him that should betray him ; therefore said he. Ye are not all 
clean. 

12 So when he had washed their feet, and taken his garments, and 
sat down again, he said unto them. Know ye what I have done to you? 

13 Ye call me, Teacher, and Lord: and ye say well; for so I am. 

14 If I then, the Lord and the Teacher, have washed your feet, ye also 
ought to wash one another's feet. 15 For I have given you an example, 
that ye also should do as I have done to you. 16 Verily, verily, I say 
unto you, A servant is not greater than his lord; neither one that is 
sent greater than he that sent him. 17 If ye know these things, blessed 
are ye if ye do them. 18 I speak not of you all : I know whom I have 
chosen : but that the scripture may be fulfilled. He that eateth my 
bread lifted up his heel against me. 19 From henceforth I tell 
you before it come to pass, that, when it is come to pass, ye may 
believe that I am he. 20 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that re- 
ceiveth whomsoever I send receiveth me; and he that receiveth me 
receiveth him that sent me. 



HARMONY 12- 



JOHN 

21 When Jesus had thus said, he was troubled in the spirit, and 
testified, and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, that one of \ou 
shall betray me. 22 The disciples looked one on another, doubting 
of whom he spake. 23 There was at the table reclining in Jesus' 
bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved. 24 Simon Peter there- 
fore beckoneth to him, and saith unto him, Tell us who it is of whom 
he speaketh, 25 He leaning back, as he was, on Jesus' breast saith 
unto him, Lord, who is it? 26 Jesus therefore answereth, He it is, 
for whom I shall dip the sop, and give it him. So when he had 
dipped the sop, he taketh and giveth it to Judas, the son of Simon 
Iscariot. 



124 



PASSION WEEK 



21. TUESDAY EVENING: Judas Goes Out and Bargains for 

Betrayal 



Matt. 26 : 14-16 

14 Then one of the twelve, who 
was called Judas Iscariot, went 
unto the chief priests, 15 and said, 
What are ye willing to give me, 
and I will deliver him unto you? 
And they weighed unto him thirty 
pieces of silver. 16 And from 
that time he sought opportunity 
to deliver him wito them. 



Mark 14 : 10, 11 

10 And Judas Iscariot, he that 
was one of the twelve, went away 
unto the chief priests, that he 
might deliver him unto them, n 
And they, when they heard it, 
were glad, and promised to give 
him money. And he sought how 
he might conveniently deliver him 
unto them. 



HARMONY 



125 



Luke 22 : 3-6 

3 And Satan entered into Judas 
who was called Iscariot, being of 
the number of the twelve. 4 And 
he went away, and communed 
with the chief priests and captains, 
how he might deliver him unto 
them. 5 And they were glad, and 
covenanted to give him money. 6 
And he consented, and sought op- 
portunity to deliver him unto 
them in the absence of the multi- 
tude. 



John 13 : 27-30 
27 And after the sop, then en- 
tered Satan into him. Jesus 
therefore saith unto him, What 
thou doest, do quickly. 28 Now no 
man at the table knew for what 
intent he spake this unto him. 
29 For some thought, because 
Judas had the bag, that Jesus 
said unto him, Buy what things 
we have need of for the feast; or, 
that he should give something to 
the poor. 30 He then having re- 
ceived the sop went out straight- 
way: and it was night. 



22. TUESDAY EVENING: The Son of Man Glorified 
John 13 : 31-38 

31 When therefore he was gone out, Jesus saith, Now is the Son 
of man glorified, and God is glorified in him ; 32 and God shall glorify 
him in himself, and straightway shall he glorify him. ZZ Little chil- 
dren, yet a little while I am with you. Ye shall seek me : and as I 
said unto the Jews, Whither I go, ye cannot come; so now I say unto 
you. 34 A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one 
another; even as I have loved you, that ye also love one another. 
35 By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love 
one to another. 

36 Simon Peter saith unto him, Lord, whither goest thou? Jesus 
answered. Whither I go, thou canst not follow me now; but thou 
shalt follow afterwards, ^y Peter saith unto him, Lord, why cannot I 
follow thee even now? I will lay down my life for thee. 38 Jesus 
answereth, Wilt thou lay down thy life for me? Verily, verily, I say 
unto thee. The cock shall not crow, till thou hast denied me thrice. 

23. TUESDAY EVENING: Jesus* Departure; Promise of the 

Comforter 
John 14 : 1-31 
I Let not your heart be troubled: ye believe in God, believe also in 
me. 2 In my Father's house are many mansions; if it were not so, I 
would have told you; for I go to prepare a place for you. 3 And if 
I go and prepare a place for you, I come again, and will receive you 
unto myself; that where I am, there ye may be also. 4 And whither 
I go, ye know the way. 5 Thomas saith unto him. Lord, we know 



126 PASSION WEEK 



John 
not whither thou goest; how know we the way? 6 Jesus saith 
unto him, I am the way, and the truth, and the life: no one cometh 
unto the Father, but by me. 7 If ye had known me, ye would have 
known my Father also: from henceforth ye know him, and have seen 
him. 8 Philip saith unto him. Lord, show us the Father, and it suf- 
ficeth us. 9 Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, 
and dost thou not know me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath seen 
the Father; how sayest 'thou, Show us the Father? lo Believest 
thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? the words 
that I say unto you I speak not from myself; but the Father abiding 
in me doeth his works, ii Believe me that I am in the Father, 
and the Father in me: or else believe me for the very works' sake. 
12 Verily, verily, I say unto you. He that believeth on me, the 
works that I do shall he do also; and greater works than these shall 
he do ; because I go unto the Father. 13 And whatsoever ye shall ask 
in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the 
Son. 14 If ye shall ask anything in my name, that will I do. 15 
If ye love me, ye will keep my commandments. 16 And I will pray 
the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may be 
with you for ever, 17 even the Spirit of truth: whom the world can- 
not receive; for it beholdeth him not, neither knoweth him: ye know 
him; for he abideth with you, and shall be in you. 18 I will not 
leave you desolate : I come unto you. 19 Yet a little while, and the 
world beholdeth me no more; but ye behold me: because I live, ye 
shall live also. 20 In that day ye shall know that I am in my 
Father, and ye in me, and I In you. 21 He that hath my command- 
ments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth 
me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest 
myself unto him, 22 Judas (not Iscariot) saith unto him. Lord, what 
is come to pass that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto 
the world? 23 Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, 
he will keep my word : and my Father will love him, and we will come 
unto him, and make our abode with him. 24 He that loveth me not 
keepeth not my words: and the word which ye hear is not mine, but 
the Father's who sent me. 

25 These things have I spoken unto you, while yet abiding with you. 
26 But the Comforter, even the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will 
send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring to your 
remembrance all that I said unto you. 27 Peace I leave with you; my 
peace I give unto you : not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let 
not your heart be troubled, neither let it be fearful, 28 Ye heard how 
I said to you, I go away, and I come unto you. If ye loved me, ye 
would have rejoiced, because I go unto the Father: for the Father is 
greater than I. 29 And now I have told you before it come to pass, 
that, when it is come to pass, ye may believe. 30 I will no more 



HARMONY 127 



John 
speak much with you, for the prince of the world cometh : and he hath 
nothing in me; 31 but that the world may know that I love the 
Father, and as the Father gave me commandment, even so I do. 
Arise, let us go hence. 

24. WEDNESDAY : Abiding Union of Jesus and His Disciples 

John 15 : 1-27 
I I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman. 2 Every 
branch in me that beareth not fruit, he taketh it away: and every 
branch that beareth fruit, he cleanseth it, that it may bear more fruit. 
3 Already ye are clean because of the word which I have spoken unto 
you. 4 Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of 
itself, except it abide in the vine; so neither can ye, except ye abide 
in me. 5 I am the vine, ye are the branches : He that abideth in me, 
and I in him, the same beareth much fruit: for apart from me ye can 
do nothing. 6 If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a 
branch, and is withered; and they gather them, and cast them into 
'the fire, and they are burned. 7 If ye abide in me, and my words 
abide in you, ask whatsoever' ye will, and it shall be done unto you. 
8 Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit; and so shall 
ye be my disciples. 9 Even as the Father hath loved me, I also have 
loved you : abide ye in my love. 10 If ye keep my commandments, 
ye shall abide in my love; even as I have kept my Father's com- 
mandments, and abide in his love. 11 These things have I spoken 
unto you, that my joy may be in you, and that your joy may be made 
full. 12 This is my commandment, that ye love one another, even as 
I have loved you. 13 Greater love hath no man than this, that a man 
lay down his life for his friends. 14 Ye are my friends, if ye do the 
things which I command you. 15 No longer do I call you servants; 
for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth : but I have called 
you friends ; for all things that I heard from my Father I have made 
known unto you. 16 Ye did not choose me, but I chose you, and 
appointed you, that ye should go and bear fruit, and that your fruit 
should abide : that whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in my name, 
he may give it you. 17 These things I command you, that ye may love 
one another. 18 If the world hateth you, ye know that it hath hated 
me before it hated you. 19 If ye were of the world, -the world would 
love its own : but because ye are not of the world, but I chose you out 
of the world, therefore the world hateth you. 20 Remember the word 
that I said unto you, A servant is not greater than his lord. If they 
persecuted me, they will also persecute you ; if they kept my word, they 
will keep yours also. 21 But all these things will they do unto you 
for my name's sake, because they know not him that sent me. 22 If 
I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin : but now 
they have no excuse for their sin. 2s He that hateth me hateth my 



128 PASSION WEEK 



John 

Father also. 24 If I had not done among them the works which none 
other did, they had not had sin: but now have 'they both seen and 
hated both me and my Father. 25 But this cometh to pass, that the 
word may be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me 
without a cause. 26 But when the Comforter is come, whom I will 
send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which pro- 
ceedeth from the Father, he shall bear witness of me: 27 and ye also 
bear witness, because ye have been with me from the beginning. 

25. WEDNESDAY; Persecution Foretold 
John 16 : 1-33 

I These things have I spoken unto you, that ye should not be caused 
to stumble, 2 They shall put you out of the synagogues: yea, the 
hour cometh, that whosoever killeth you shall think that he offereth 
service unto God. 3 And these things will they do, because they have 
not known the Father, nor me. 4 But these things have I spoken unto 
you, that when their hour is come, ye may remember them, how that I 
told you. And these things I said not unto you from the beginning, 
because I was with you. 5 But now I go unto him that sent me; and 
none of you asketh me. Whither goest thou? 6 But because I have 
spoken these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart. 7 Never- 
theless I tell you the truth : It is expedient for you that I go away ; 
for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you ; but if I 
go, I will send him unto you. 8 And he, when he is come, will convict 
the world in respect of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment: 
9 of sin, because they believe not on me; 10 of righteousness, because 
I go to the Father, and ye behold me no more; 11 of judgment, 
because the prince of this world hath been judged. 12 I have yet 
many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. 13 How- 
beit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he shall guide you into all 
the truth : for he shall not speak from himself ; but what things soever 
he shall hear, these shall he speak : and he shall declare unto you 
the things that are to come. 14 He shall glorify me : for he shall take 
of mine, and shall declare it unto you. 15 All things whatsoever the 
Father hath are mine : therefore said I, that he taketh of mine, and 
shall declare it unto you. 16 A little while, and ye behold me no more ; 
and again a little while, and ye shall see me. 17 Some of his disciples 
therefore said one to another, What is this that he saith unto us, 
A little while, and ye behold me not; and again a little while, and ye 
shall see me: and, Because I go to the Father? 18 They said there- 
fore, What is this that he saith, A little while? We know not what 
he saith. 19 Jesus perceived that they were desirous to ask him, and 
he said unto them. Do ye inquire among yourselves concerning this, 
that I said, A little while, and ye behold me not, and again a little 
while, and ye shall see me? 20 Verily, verily, I say unto you, that ye 



HARMONY 129 



John 
shall weep and lament, but the world shall rejoice: ye shall be sorrow- 
ful, but your sorrow shall be turned into joy. 21 A woman when she 
is in travail hath sorrow, because her hour is come : but when she is 
delivered of the child, she remembereth no more the anguish, for the 
joy that a man is born into the world. 22 And ye therefore now have 
sorrow: but I will see you again, and your heart shall rejoice, and 
your joy no one taketli away from you. 23 And in that day ye shall 
ask me no question. Verily, verily, I say unto you. If ye shall ask 
anything of the Father, he will give it you in my name. 24 Hitherto 
have ye asked nothing in my name : ask, and ye shall receive, that your 
joy may be made full. 

25 These things have I spoken unto you in dark sayings: the hour 
Cometh, when I shall no more speak unto you in dark sayings, but 
shall tell you plainly of the Father. 26 In that day ye shall ask in 
my name : and I say not unto you, that I will pray the Father for you ; 
27 for the Father himself loveth you, because ye have loved me, and 
have believed that I came forth from the Father. 28 I came out 
from the Father, and am come into the world: again, I leave the 
world, and go unto the Father. 29 His disciples say, Lo, now speakest 
thou plainly, and speakest no dark saying. 30 Now know we that thou 
knowest all things, and needest not that any man should ask thee: by 
this we believe that thou camest forth from God. 31 Jesus answered 
them. Do ye now believe? 32 Behold, the hour cometh, yea, is come, 
that ye shall be scattered, every man to his own, and shall leave me 
alone: and yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me. 33 
These things have I spoken unto you, that in me ye may have peace. 
In the world ye have tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have 
overcome the world. 

26. WEDNESDAY: The Intercessory Prayer 

John 17 : 1-26 
I These things spake Jesus; and lifting up his eyes to heaven, he 
said. Father, the hour is come; glorify thy Son, that the Son may 
glorify thee: 2 even as thou gavest him authority over all flesh, that 
to all whom thou hast given him, he should give eternal life. 3 And 
this is life eternal, that they should know thee the only true 
God, and him whom thou didst send, even Jesus Christ. 4 
I glorified thee on the earth, having accomplished the work which 
thou hast given me to do. 5 And now, Father, glorify thou me 
with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before 
the world was. 6 I manifested thy name unto the men whom thou 
gavest me out of the world: thine they were, and thou gavest them 
to me ; and they have kept thy word. 7 Now they know that all things 
whatsoever thou hast given me are from thee: 8 for the words 
which thou gavest me T have given unto them; and they received 



130 



PASSION WEEK 



John 
them, and knew of a truth that I came forth from thee, and they 
believed that thou didst send me. 9 I pray for them: I pray not for 
the world, but for those whom thou hast given me; for they are thine: 
10 and all things that are mine are thine, and thine are mine: 
and I am glorified in them. 11 And I am no more in the world, 
and these are in the world, and I come to thee. Holy Father, keep 
them in thy name which thou hast given me, that they may be one, 
even as we are. 12 While I was with them, I kept them in thy name 
which thou hast given me : and I guarded them, and not one of them 
perished, but the son of perdition; that the scripture might be ful- 
filled. 13 But now I come to thee; and these things I speak in the 
world, that they may have my joy made full in themselves. 14 I 
have given them thy word ; and the world hated them, because they 
are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. 15 I pray not 
that thou shouldest take them from the world, but that thou shouldest 
keep them from the evil one. 16 They are not of the world, even 
as I am not of the world. 17 Sanctify them in the truth: thy word is 
truth. 18 As thou didst send me into the world, even so sent I them 
into the world. 19 And for their sakes I sanctify myself, that they 
themselves also may be sanctified in truth. 20 Neither for these only 
do I pray, but for them also that believe on me through their word; 
21 that they may all be one; even as thou, Father, art in me, and I 
in thee, that they also may be in us : that the world may believe that 
thou didst send me. 22 And the glory which thou hast given me I 
have given unto them; that they may be one, even as we are one; 23 
I in them, and thou in me, that they may be perfected into one; that 
the world may know that thou didst send me, and lovedst them, even 
as thou lovedst me. 24 Father, I desire that they also whom thou 
hast given me be with me where I am, that they may behold my glory, 
which thou hast given me: for thou lovedst me before the foundation 
of the world. 25 O righteous Father, the world knew thee not, but 
I knew thee; and these knew that thou didst send me; 26 and I made 
known unto them thy name, and will make it known; that the love 
wherewith thou lovedst me may be in them, and I in them. 

27. THURSDAY: Preparation for the Passover 



Matt. 26 : 17-19 

17 Now on the first 
day of unleavened 
bread the disciples 
came to Jesus, saying, 
Where wilt thou that 
we make ready for 
thee to eat the pass- 



Mark 14 : 12-16 

12 And on the first 
day of unleavened 
bread, when they sac- 
rificed the passover, 
his disciples say unto 
him, Where wilt thou 
that we go and make 



Luke 22 : 7-13 

7 And the day of 
unleavened bread 
came, on which the 
passover must be 
sacrificed. 8 And he 
sent Peter and John, 
saying, Go and make 



HARMONY 



131 



Matthew 

over? 18 And he 
said, Go into the city 
to such a man, and 
say unto him, The 
Teacher saith. My 
time is at hand; I 
keep the passover at 
thy house with my 
disciples. 19 And the 
disciples did as Jesus 
appointed them; and 
they made ready the 
passover. 



Mark 

ready that thou may- 
est eat the passover? 
13 And he sendeth 
two of his disciples, 
and saith unto them, 
Go into the city, and 
there shall meet you 
a man bearing a pitch- 
er of water : follow 
him; 14 and where- 
soever he shall enter 
in, say to the master 
of the house. The 
Teacher saith. Where 
is my guest-chamber, 
where I shall eat the 
passover with my dis- 
ciples? 15 And he 
will himself show 
you a large upper 
room furnished and 
ready : and there 
make ready for us. 
16 And the disciples 
went forth, and came 
into the city, and 
found as he had said 
unto them: and they 
made ready the pass- 
over. 



Luke 

ready for us the pass- 
over, that we may eat. 

9 And they said unto 
him, Where wilt thou 
that we make ready? 

10 And he said unto 
them, Behold, when 
ye are entered into 
the city, there shall 
meet you a man bear- 
ing a pitcher of 
water ; follow him 
into the house where- 
into he goeth. 11 
And ye shall say unto 
the master of the 
house, The Teacher 
saith unto thee, 
Where is the guest- 
chamber, where I 
shall eat the passover 
with my disciples? 12 
And he will show 
you a large upper 
room furnished : there 
make ready. 13 And 
they went, and found 
as he had said unto 
them: and they made 
ready the passover. 



28. THURSDAY EVENING: The Passover Supper; The Betrayer 

Designated 



Matt. 26 : 20-25 

20 Now when even 
was come, he was 
sitting at meat with 
the twelve disciples ; 
21 and as they were 
eating, he said, Verily 
I say unto you, that 
one of you shall be- 
tray me. 22 And they 
were exceeding sor- 



Mark 14 : 17-21 

17 And when it was 
evening he cometh 
with the twelve. 18 
And as they sat 
and were eating, Je- 
sus said. Verily I say 
unto you. One of you 
shall betray me, even 
he that eateth with 
me. 19 They began 



Luke 22:14-18, 21-30 

14 And when the 
hour was come, he sat 
down, and the apostles 
with him. 15 And he 
said unto them, With 
desire I have desired 
to eat this passover 
with you before I 
suffer: 16 for I say 
unto you, I shall not 



132 



PASSION WEEK 



Matthew 

rowful, and began to 
say unto him every 
one, Is it I, Lord? 23 
And he answered and 
said, He that dipped 
his hand with me in 
the dish, the same 
shall betray me. 24 
The Son of man 
goeth, even as it is 
written of him : but 
woe unto that man 
through whom the 
Son of man is be- 
trayed ! good were it 
for that man if he 
had not been born. 25 
And Judas, who be- 
trayed him, answered 
and said, Is it I, Rab- 
bi? He saith unto 
him, Thou hast said. 



Mark 
to be sorrowful, and 
to say unto him one 
by one. Is it I? 20 
And he said unto 
them. It is one of the 
twelve, he that dippeth 
with me in the dish. 
21 For the Son of 
man goeth, even as 
it is written of him : 
but woe unto that 
man through whom 
the Son of man is be- 
trayed! good were it 
for that man if he 
had not been born. 



Luke 

eat it, until it be ful- 
filled in the kingdom 
of God. 17 And he 
received a cup, and 
when he had given 
thanks, he said, Take 
this, and divide it 
among yourselves: 18 
for I say unto you, I 
shall not drink from 
henceforth of the 
fruit of the vine, 
until the kingdom 
of God shall come. 
21 But behold, the 
hand of him that be- 
trayeth me is with me 
on the table. 22 For 
the Son of man in- 
deed goeth, as it hath 
been determined: but 
woe unto that man 
through whom he is 
betrayed ! 23 A n d 
they began to ques- 
t i o n among them- 
selves, which of them 
it was that should do 
this thing. 

24 And there arose 
also a contention 
among them, which 
of them was account- 
ed to be greatest. 25 
And he said unto 
them, The kings of 
the Gentiles have 
lordship over them ; 
and they that have 
authority over them 
are called Benefac- 
tors. 26 But ye shall 
not be so : but he that 
is the greater among 
you, let him become 



HARMONY 



133 



Luke 
as the younger; and 
he that is chief, as he 
that doth serve. 27 
For which is greater, 
he that sitteth at 
meat, or he that serv- 
eth? is not he that 
sitteth at meat? but I 
am in the midst of 
you as he that serveth. 
28 But ye are they 
that have continued 
with me in my temp- 
tations; 29 and I ap- 
point unto you a 
kingdom, even as my 
Father appointed unto 
me, 30 that ye may 
eat and drink at my 
table in my kingdom; 
and ye shall sit on 
thrones judging the 
twelve tribes of Israel. 



134 



PASSION WEEK 



29. THURSDAY EVENING: The Lord's Supper Instituted 



Matt. 26 : 26-30 

26 And as they were eating, 
Jesus took bread, and blessed, and 
brake it; and he gave to the dis- 
ciples, and said. Take, eat; this 
is my body. 27 And he took a 
cup, and gave thanks, and gave to 
them, saying, Drink ye all of it; 
28 for this is my blood of the 
covenant, which is poured out for 
many unto remission of sins. 29 
But I say unto you, I shall not 
drink henceforth of this fruit of 
the vine, until that day when I 
drink it new with you in my 
Father's kingdom. 

30 And when they had sung a 
hymn, they went out unto the 
mount of Olives. 



Mark 14 : 22-26 

22 And as they were eating, he 
took bread, and when he had 
blessed, he brake it, and gave to 
them, and said, Take ye : this is 
my body. 23 And he took a cup, 
and when he had given thanks, 
he gave to them : and they all 
drank of it. 24 And he said unto 
them. This is my blood of the 
covenant, which is poured out for 
many. 25 Verily I say unto you, 
I shall no more drink of the fruit 
of the vine, until that day when I 
drink it new in the kingdom of 
God. 

26 And when they had sung a 
hymn, they went out unto the 
mount of Olives. 



30. THURSDAY NIGHT: Dispersion of the Twelve Announced; 

Peter's Denial 



Matt. 26 : 31-35 
31 Then saith Jesus unto them, 
All ye shall be offended in me 
this night : for it is written, I will 
smite the shepherd, and the sheep 
of the flock shall be scattered 
abroad. 32 But after I am raised 
lip, I will go before you into 
Galilee. 23 But Peter answered 
and said unto him, If all shall be 
offended in thee, I will never be 
offended. 34 Jesus said unto him, 
Verily I say unto thee, that this 
night, before the cock crow, thou 
shalt deny me thrice. 35 Peter 
saith unto him, Even if I must 
die with thee, yet will I not deny 
thee. Likewise also said all the 
disciples. 



Mark 14 : 27-31 
27 And Jesus saith unto them, 
All ye shall be offended : for it is 
written, I will smite the shepherd, 
and the sheep shall be scattered 
abroad. 28 Howbeit, after I am 
raised up, I will go before you 
into Galilee. 29 But Peter said 
unto him, Although all shall be 
offended, yet will not I. 30 And 
Jesus saith unto him. Verily I say 
unto thee, that thou to-day, even 
this night, before the cock crow 
twice, shalt deny me thrice. 31 
But he spake exceeding vehe- 
mently, If I must die with thee, I 
will not deny thee. And in like 
manner also said they all. 



HARMONY 



135 



Luke 22 : 19, 20 
19 And he took bread, and when 
he had given thanks, he brake it, 
and gave to them, saying. This 
is my body which is given for 
you : this do in remembrance of 
me. 20 And the cup in like man- 
ner after supper, saying, This cup 
is the new covenant in my blood, 
even that which is poured out 
for you. 



(i Cor. II : 23-26) 
23 For I received of the Lord 
that which also I delivered unto 
you, that the Lord Jesus in the 
night in which he was betrayed 
took bread; 24 and when he had 
given thanks, he brake it, and 
said. This is my body, which is 
for you : this do in remembrance 
of me. 25 In like manner also 
the cup, after supper, saying. This 
cup is the new covenant in my 
blood: this do, as often as ye 
drink it, in remembrance of me. 
26 For as often as ye eat this 
bread, and drink the cup, ye pro- 
claim the Lord's death till he 
come. 



John 18 : i 
I When Jesus had spoken 
these words, he went forth with 
his disciples over the brook Kid- 
ron, where was a garden, into 
which he entered, himself and his 
disciples. 



Luke 22 : 31-38 

31 Simon, Simon, behold, Satan 
asked to have you, that he might 
sift you as wheat : 32 but I made 
supplication for thee, that thy 
faith fail not; and do thou, when 
once thou hast turned again, es- 
tablish thy brethren. 33 And he 
said unto him. Lord, with thee I am ready to go both to prison and 
to death. 34 And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow 
this day, until thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me. 

35 And he said unto them. When I sent you forth without purse, 
and wallet, and shoes, lacked ye anything? And they said. Nothing. 
36 And he said unto them. But now, he that hath a purse, let him 
take it, and likewise a wallet; and he that hath none, let him sell his 
cloak, and buy a sword. 37 For I say unto you, that this which is 
written must be fulfilled in me, And he was reckoned with transgres- 
sors : for that which concerneth me hath fulfilment. 38 And they said. 
Lord, behold, here are two swords. And he said unto them. It is 
enough. 



136 



PASSION WEEK 



31. FRIDAY: The Agony in Gethsemane 



Matt. 26 : 36-46 
36 Then cometh Je- 
sus with them unto a 
place called Gethsem- 
ane, and saith unto 
his disciples, Sit ye 
here, while I go 
yonder and pray. 37 
And he took with 
him Peter and the 
two sons of Zebedee, 
and began to be sor- 
rowful and sore 
troubled. 38 Then 
saith he unto them, 
My soul is exceeding 
sorrowful, even unto 
death : abide ye here, 
and watch with me. 
39 And he went for- 
ward a little, and fell 
on his face, and 
prayed, saying. My 
Father, if it be pos- 
sible, let this cup pass 
away from me: never- 
theless, not as I will, 
but as thou wilt. 40 
And he cometh unto 
the disciples, and 
findeth them sleeping, 
and saith unto Peter, 
What, could ye not 
watch with me one 
hour? 41 Watch and 
pray, that ye enter 
not into temptation : 
the spirit indeed is 
willing, but the flesh 
is weak. 42 Again a 
second time he went 
away, and prayed, 
saying. My Father, if 
this cannot pass away, 



Mark 14 : 32-42 
32 And they come 
unto a place which 
was named Gethsem- 
ane : and he saith un- 
to his disciples, Sit ye 
here, while I pray. 
33 And he taketh with 
him Peter and James 
and John, and began 
to be greatly amazed, 
and sore troubled. 34 
And he saith unto 
them. My soul is ex- 
ceeding sorrowful 
even unto death : abide 
ye here, and watch. 
35 And he went for- 
ward a little, and fell 
on the ground, and 
prayed that, if it were 
possible, the hour 
might pass away from 
him. 36 And he said, 
Abba, Father, all 
things are possible 
unto thee ; remove this 
cup from me : how- 
beit not what I will, 
but what thou wilt. 
37 And he cometh, and 
findeth them sleeping, 
and saith unto Peter, 
Simon, sleepest thou? 
couldest thou not 
watch one hour? 38 
Watch and pray, that 
ye enter not into 
temptation: the spirit 
indeed is willing, but 
the flesh is weak. 39 
And again he went 
away, and prayed, say- 
ing the same words. 



Luke 22 : 39-46 

39 And he came out, 
and went, as his cus- 
tom was, unto the 
mount of Olives; and 
the disciples also fol- 
lowed him. 40 And 
when he was at the 
place, he said unto 
them, Pray that ye 
enter not into tempta- 
tion. 41 And he was 
parted from them 
about a stone's cast; 
and he kneeled down 
and prayed, 42 saying, 
Father, if thou be 
willing, remove this 
cup from me: never- 
theless not my will, 
but thine, be done. 43 
And there appeared 
unto him an angel 
from heaven, strength- 
ening him. 44 And 
being in an agony 
he prayed more ear- 
nestly; and his sweat 
became as it were 
great drops of blood 
falling down upon the 
ground. 45 And when 
he rose up from his 
prayer, he came unto 
the disciples, and 
found them sleeping 
for sorrow, 46 and 
said unto them, Why 
sleep ye? rise and 
pray, that ye enter 
not into temptation. 



HARMONY 



137 



Matthew 
except I drink it, thy 
will be done. 43 And 
he c me again and 
found them sleeping, 
for their eyes were 
heavy. 44 And he 
left them again, and 
went away, and prayed 
a third time, saying 
again the same words. 
45 Then cometh he to 
the disciples, and saith 
unto them. Sleep on 
now, and take your 
rest : behold, the hour 
is at hand, and the 
Son of man is be- 
trayed into the hands 
of sinners. 46 Arise, 
let us be going: be- 
hold, he is at hand 
that betrayeth me. 



Mark 

40 And again he came, 
and found them sleep- 
ing, for their eyes 
were very heavy ; and 
they knew not what 
to answer him. 41 
And he cometh the 
third time, and saith 
unto them. Sleep on 
now, and take your 
rest : it is enough ; the 
hour is come; behold, 
the Son of man is be- 
trayed into the hands 
of sinners. 42 Arise, 
let us be going: be- 
hold, he that be- 
trayeth me is at hand. 



K 



138 



PASSION WEEK 



32. FRIDAY: Betrayal and Arrest 



Matt. 26 : 47-56 

47 And while he yet spake, lo, 
Judas, one of the twelve, came, 
and with him a great multitude 
with swords and staves, from the 
chief priests and elders of the 
people. 48 Now he that betrayed 
him gave them a sign, saying, 
Whomsoever I shall kiss, that is 
he: take him. 49 And straight- 
way he came to Jesus, and said, 
Hail, Rabbi; and kissed him. 50 
And Jesus said unto him. Friend, 
do that for which thou art come. 
Then they came and laid hands on 
Jesus, and took him. 51 And be- 
hold, one of them that were with 
Jesus stretched out his hand, and 
drew his sword, and smote the 
servant of the high priest, and 
struck off his ear. 52 Then saith 
Jesus unto him. Put up again thy 
sword into its place : for all they 
that take the sword shall perish 
with the sword. 53 Or thinkest 
thou that I cannot beseech my 
Father, and he shall even now 
send me more than twelve 
legions of angels? 54 How then 
should the scriptures be fulfilled, 
that thus it must be? 55 In that 
hour said Jesus to the multitudes. 
Are ye come out as against a rob- 
ber with swords and staves to seize 
me? I sat daily in the temple 
teaching, and ye took me not. 
56 But all this is come to pass, 
that the scriptures of the prophets 
might be fulfilled. Then all the 
disciples left him, and fled. 



Mark 14 : 43-52 

43 And straightway, while he 
yet spake, cometh Judas, one of 
the twelve, and with him a multi- 
tude with swords and staves, from 
the chief priests and the scribes 
and the elders. 44 Now he that 
betrayed him had given them a 
token, saying, Whomsoever I shall 
kiss, that is he; take him, and 
lead him away safely. 45 And 
when he was come, straightway 
he came to him, and saith. Rabbi; 
and kissed him. 46 And they laid 
hands on him, and took him. 47 
But a certain one of them that 
stood by drew his sword, and 
smote the servant of the high 
priest, and struck off his ear. 48 
And Jesus answered and said 
unto them. Are ye come out, as 
against a robber, with swords and 
staves to seize me? 49 I was 
daily with you in the temple 
teaching, and ye took me not: 
but this is done that the scrip- 
tures might be fulfilled. 50 And 
they all left him, and fled. 

51 And a certain young man 
followed with him, having a linen 
cloth cast about him, over his 
naked body: and they lay hold on 
him ; 52 but he left the linen cloth, 
and fled naked. 



HARMONY 



139 



Luke 22 : 47-53 
^ 47 While he yet spake, behold, 
a multitude, and he that was 
called Judas, one of the twelve, 
went before them; and he drew 
near unto Jesus to kiss him. 48 
But Jesus said unto him, Judas, 
betrayest thou the Son of man 
with a kiss? 49 And when they 
that were about him saw what 
would follow, they said. Lord, 
shall we smite with the sword? 
50 And a certain one of them 
smote the servant of the high 
priest, and struck off his right 
ear. 51 But Jesus answered and 
said, Suffer ye them thus far. 
And he touched his ear, and 
healed him. 52 And Jesus said 
unto the chief priests, and cap- 
tains of the temple, and elders, 
that were come against him, Are 
ye come out, as against a rob- 
ber, with swords and staves? 53 
When I was daily with you in 
the temple, ye stretched not forth 
your hands against me; but this 
is your hour, and the power of 
darkness. 



John 18 : 2-11 

2 Now Judas also, who be- 
trayed him, knew the place: for 
, Jesus ofttimes resorted thither 
with his disciples. 3 Judas then, 
having received the band of 
soldiers, and officers from the 
chief priests and the Pharisees, 
cometh thither with lanterns and 
torches and weapons. 4 Jesus 
therefore, knowing all the things 
that were coming upon him, went 
forth, and saith unto them, Whom 
seek ye? 5 They answered him, 
Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith 
unto them, I am he. And Judas 
also, who betrayed him, was 
standing with them. 6 When 
therefore he said unto them, I 
am he, they went backward, and 
fell to the ground. 7 Again there- 
fore he asked them, Whom seek 
ye? And they said, Jesus of 
Nazareth. 8 Jesus answered, I 
told you that I am he; if there- 
fore ye seek me, let these go their 
way: 9 that the word might be 
fulfilled which he spake, Of those 
whom thou hast given me I lost 
not one. 10 Simon Peter there- 
fore having a sword drew it, and 
struck the high priest's servant, 
and cut off his right ear. Now 
the servant's name was Malchus. 
II Jesus therefore said unto Peter, 
Put up the sword into the sheath : 
the cup which the Father hath 
given me, shall I not drink it? 



Note. The discussions of Part Second not extending beyond the 
events of Friday, this Harmony ends with the Betrayal and Arrest. 



INDEX 



Abbott, Lyman, on two suppers at 

Bethany, 50, 64. 
Age of Jesus when the Magi came, 

12. 
Alford, Henry, on time of year of 

Jesus' birth, 6. 
Andrew, early associate of Jesus, 

28. 
Andrews, S. T. : on time of Jesus' 

birth, 6; on supper at house of 

Simon the leper, 49, 66. 
Anointings, four, in Gospels, 53. 
" Arise, let us go hence," 49, 72, 76, 

78, 79, 93. 

Baptism of Jesus: mentioned, 2^) 
a profession, a declaration, 2)7 'y 
not a cleansing nor a washing, 
38; differed from all Old Testa- 
ment rites, 38; confession of 
purpose to do God's will, 39, 40 ; 
not an example, 39; not the 
first to be so baptized, 39. 

Barton, W. E. : mentioned, 49; on 
supper at Bethany Friday eve- 
ning, 66. 

Bethany, mentioned, 46, 47, 52, 55, 
56, 59, 65, 69, 86. 

Bethlehem, referred to, 3, 5, 9, 13, 

IS. 
Bethsaida: home of Zebedee and 
his sons, 30, 31 ; home of Philip, 

34. 
Broadus, John A., quoted, 6, 12, 48, 

52, 62, 70, 73, 82, 84. 
Burton and Mathews, quoted, 49, 

62,. 



"But John says Judas went out," 
82. 

Cana, the wedding at, 35. 

Chief priests and elders : Lazarus' 
death plotted by, 54, 55, 59; Je- 
sus* death plotted by, 69. 

Chrysostom, quoted, 50, 60, 63. 

Church discipline, limitations of, 86. 

Clarke, Adam, quoted, 50, 64, 66. 

Clark, G. W., quoted, 48, 50, 63. 

Clericus, John, quoted, 50, 66. 

Crane Caroline Crawford Whit- 
man, Introduction. 

Dawson, W. J., quoted, 49, 67. 

Deipnon, 46. 

Did Judas go to betray Jesus 

Tuesday night ? 68. 
Did Tuesday night's teaching end 

with John 14 : 31 ? y6. 
Disciples, first five, 28, 29, 31. 
Dods, Marcus, quoted, 49, 65. 

Early homes of Jesus, 13. 

Edersheim, Alfred, quoted, 49, 65. 

Egeiro, meaning of, 77. 

Expositors : lack of agreement 
among, 13, 51 ; too much har- 
monizing by, 51. 

Family connections of Jesus, 30. 
Farrar, F. W., quoted, 31, 49, 52, 

66, 7S. 
Fleetwood, John, quoted, 50. 
Flight into Egypt: mentioned, 11; 

was it in winter? 15, 16. 

141 



142 



INDEX 



Gardiner, Frederick, on time of 

Jesus' birth, 5. 
Geikie, C., on time of Jesus' 

birth, 7. 
Gilbert, G. H., quoted, 49, 66. 
Gospel church, definition of, 86. 
Gospels, terseness of, 45. 

Hackett, H. B., quoted, 50. 
Harmonists : troublesome ques- 
tion for, 56; no harmony among, 

59- 

Harmony: outline, of Passion 
week, 43, 44; seven changes 
secure complete, 48 ; place of 
John 13 : 1-30 in a Gospel, 70. 

Herod: inquires date of birth of 
Jesus, 13; gathers chief priests 
and scribes, 14; sends Magi to 
Bethlehem, 14; orders massacre 
of infants, 19; tetrarch of Gali- 
lee, 26. 

Inn, the, and the stable, 9, 10. 

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown, quoted, 
49. 

Jesus : hrephos, the babe: men- 
tioned, 19, 20; annunciation of 
birth of, to Mary, 4; date of 
birth of, 3, 5, 7, 10; adoration 
of, by shepherds, 10; paidion, 
the little child: mentioned, 21, 
22; taken to Jerusalem for pres- 
entation in temple, 18, 19; testi- 
mony of Simeon and Anna to, 
II, 23, 24; removal of, to Bethle- 
hem, 13, 14; pais, the boy: men- 
tioned, 22; received the Magi 
and their gifts, 14, 15; is taken 
to Egypt in haste, 15, 19; 
brought back after death of 
Herod, 21 ; taken to Nazareth, 
22, 30; goes to Passover with 
parents, 21 ; with the doctors, 21, 
22; early associates of, 30; 



family connections of, 30; rea- 
sons for silence concerning early 
life of, 32-36; the mature ma/n: 
seeks baptism of John, 25, 38; 
revealed as Messiah by sign of 
dove, 25 ; returns from Jordan, 
32; led into wilderness, 32; re- 
turns to Jordan, 32; opening of 
public ministry of, z^; John's 
testimony to, 26, 27; called the 
Lamb of God and Son of God, 
35, 36; John's further testimony 
to, 28; invites John and Andrew 
to his abode, 28; Simon brought 
to, 28; finds Philip, 29; Na- 
thanael brought to, 29; goes to 
Cana, 29 ; his first miracle, 35 ; 
visits home of Martha and 
Mary, 54; Lazarus raised by, 
54; plan to destroy, 54; his de- 
parture for Ephraim, 54; con- 
tinues preaching and healing, 
54; returns toward Jerusalem, 
54; sought by Jews, 55; chief 
priests and Pharisees plot death 
of, 55; anointed at home of 
Martha and Mary, 51, 56, 57; 
public entry of, 45, 47; Greeks 
wishing to see, 48; goes every 
night to Mount of Olives, 46; 
teaching every day in temple, 
46; Lord of Sabbath, 47; prob- 
ably in retreat Wednesday and 
Thursday of Passion week, yy. 

Jews : messengers of, arrive at 
Jordan, 26. 

John, the apostle : son of Zebedee 
and Salome, 30; brother of 
James, 30, 53; Jesus' first dis- 
ciple, 28, 53; took mother of 
Jesus to his home, 53; his ac- 
count of one anointing, 53. 

John the Baptist: son of Zacha- 
rias and Elizabeth, 26; in the 
wilderness, 26; preaching and 
baptizing, 26; proclaimed the 



INDEX 



143 



coming Messiah, 26; a s,el£- 
effacing witness, 26, 27; Jewish 
nation profoundly stirred by, 
27; had been given sign of 
Messiah, 24, 25; pointed out 
Jesus to John and Andrew, 28. 

Joseph and Mary: journey of, 
for enrolment, 4, 8; find lodg- 
ings in a stall, 9, 10; visit of 
shepherds to, 10; take the Child 
to Jerusalem, 11; return to 
Nazareth, 22; remove to Beth- 
lehem, 20; flee into Egypt, 15; 
stay of, in Egypt, 16; come out 
of Egypt, 21. 

Josephus, testimony of, to John, 
23, 27. 

Judas Iscariot: at Passover and 
Lord's Supper, 82, 84, 85; not 
present Wednesday and Thurs- 
day, 82, 84, 86. 

Lazarus, family and home of, 51, 

54, 55, 58, 59, 62, 66, 78. 
Lightfoot, J. B., quoted, 50, 66. 

McClellan, J. B., quoted, 50, 63, 65. 

McKnight, James, quoted, 50, 66. 

Marriage at Cana, 32, 35. 

Martha and Mary, mentioned, 52, 
54, 58, 78. 

Mary: annunciation of angel to, 
4; visit of, to home of Zacharias 
and EHzabeth, 4; hostess at 
marriage in Cana, 32; taken to 
John's home, 53. 

Memorial rite: symbolizing uni- 
versal brotherhood, y6, 81 ; a 
perfect object-lesson for all 
time, 81. 

Metanoia, meaning of, 38. 

Nathanael, of Cana, 29, 32, 34. 

Nazareth: distance from, to 
Bethlehem, 8; first journey of 
holy family from, to Bethlehem, 



9; journey from Jerusalem to, 
11; second journey from, to 
Bethlehem, 20. 
Newcome, quoted, 50. 

Oik OS, home of Joseph and Mary 
in Bethlehem, 20. 

Palm Sunday, and the triumphal 

entry, 45, 48. 
Passover, the two days previous 

to, 68-70. 
Passover supper, references to, 69, 

70, 72, 79, 80, ^2, 83. 
Peter, sought by Philip, named by 

Jesus, 28. 
Pittenger, William, quoted, 50, 52, 

62, 63. 
Public entry, made on Saturday, 

47, 86, 94-^ 
Public ministry of Jesus, begin- 
ning of, 32-36. 

Resadi, Giovanni, quoted, 50, 6y, 
Rhees, Rush, quoted, 7, 49, 66. 
Riddle, M. B., quoted, 49, 63, 74. 
Robinson, Edward, quoted, 50, 62, 

^3, 74- 
Robinson-Riddle, quoted, 48, 49, 
62, 74. 

Salome: wife of Zebedee, 30; 

mother of James and John, 30; 

attended Jesus in his itinerant 

ministry, 30; mentioned among 

kindred folk, 31-33. 
Sanday, William, quoted, 49, 65. 
Satan, entered into Judas, 68, 69, 

71-73. 
Shepherds, abiding in the field, 

4, 9, ID. 
Stevens and Burton, quoted, 48, 

49, 70-73- 

Suppers at Bethany: discussed, 47, 

50, 56, 62, 64, y6; nine points of 
disagreement concerning, 57, 



144 



INDEX 



Talmage, T. DeWitt, quoted, i8. 
Teaching, daily, in temple, 6i. 
Thayer, J. H., quoted, lo. 
Triumphal entry, time of, 45. 

Watson, P. S. G., quoted, 79. 
Wednesday, the lost, 80. 
Weiss, Bernhard, quoted, 49, 64. 
" What thou doest, do quickly," 
69-71, 7Z, 77' 



Whitby, Daniel, quoted, 50, 66. 
Whitman, P. S., sketch of life and 
writings of. Introduction. 

Zacharias : and Elizabeth entertain 
Mary, 4; probably knew where 
the Messiah would be born, 4. 

Zebedee : of Bethsaida, father of 
James and John, 30; fisher, 
partner of James, 30. 



INDEX OF SCRIPTURE REFERENCES 



Psalms Page 

40 : 7, 8 Lo, I am come zi 

MiCAH 

5 : 2 birthplace of ruler in Israel 4 

Zechariah 

9 : 9 behold, thy king cometh 47 

Matthew 

2 : 1-12 visit of the Magi 4, 12, 15, 19 

13-1S flight into Egypt 15, 16 

16-18 slaughter of children 13, 19 

3 : 1-12 John's ministry 38 

13-17 baptism of Jesus 25, :i,'7, 39, 40 

4 : i-ii temptation in the wilderness 25 

12 : 49, so " Behold my mother and my brethren " Zl 

20:29-34 the blind men near Jericho 91 

21 : i-ii the public entry 94 

12-17 cleansing of the temple 99 

18, 19 blighting of the fig tree 99 

20-22 the fig tree withered 100 

^Z-^y Jesus' authority challenged loi 

28 to 22 : 14. three parables of warning 102 

22 : 15-40 three questions by Jewish rulers 105 

41-46 Jesus* unanswerable question 108 

23 : 1-39 woes against the scribes and Pharisees 109 

24 and 25 the desolation of Jerusalem, and end of age. . iii 

26: 1-5 Jesus' further prediction, his crucifixion 

plotted 51, (i"], 71, ^2, 120 

6-13 Jesus anointed in the house of Simon 

48, 52, 53, 71, n, 87, 121 

14-16 Judas goes out and bargains for betrayal, 

(ij, 68, 71, ^2, 124 

17-19 preparation for the Passover 79, 130 

2(i : 20-25 the Passover supper, the betrayer designated, 

70, 79, 131 

145 



146 INDEX OF SCRIPTURE REFERENCES 

Matthew Page 

26 : 26-30 the Lord's Supper instituted 134 

31-35^ dispersion of the Twelve announced, Peter's 

denial I34 

36-46 the agony in Gethsemane 136 

47-56 betrayal and arrest 46, 138 

Mark 

10:46-52 the blind men near Jericho 91 

11 : i-ii the public entry 45, 46, 94 

12-14, blighting of the fig tree 51, 99 

15-19 cleansing of the temple 99 

20-25 the fig tree withered 100 

37-33 Jesus* authority challenged loi 

12 : 1-12 three parables of warning 102 

13-34 three questions by the Jewish rulers 105 

35-37 Jesus' unanswerable question 108 

38-40 woes against the scribes and Pharisees 109 

41-44 the widow's two mites iii 

13 : 1-37 the desolation of Jerusalem, and end of age. . in 

14: 1,2 Jesus' further prediction, his crucifixion 

plotted 68, 71-73, 120 

3-9 Jesus anointed in the house of Simon, 48, 53, 

65, 66, 71, 73, 87, 121 

10, II Judas goes out and bargains for betrayal, 68, 

71, 72, 73, 124 

12-16 preparation for the Passover 73, 130 

17-21 the Passover supper, the betrayer designated, 

70, 73, 131 

22-26 the Lord's Supper instituted 73, 134 

27-31 dispersion of the Twelve announced, Peter's 

denial 73, I34 

32-42 the agony in Gethsemane 73, 136 

43-52 betrayal and arrest 138 



Luke 



: 1-7 birth of Jesus 8, 9 

8-20 the angels and the shepherds 7, 10 

22-38 presentation in temple n 

39 return to their own city, Nazareth 11, 18 

40 child grew, filled with wisdom 21, 30 

41-50 Jesus at Passover 30 

SI, 52 subject to parents, advanced in wisdom 22 

: 1-20 John's ministry and imprisonment 26 

21, 22 baptism of Jesus 27 



INDEX OF SCRIPTURE REFERENCES 147 

Luke Pagb 

4 : 1-13 temptation in wilderness 32 

7 '. 36-50 first anointing of Jesus 53 

10 : 38-42 Jesus' visit to home of Martha and Mary 54 

13 : 6-9 parable of the Fig Tree 51 

18 : 35-43 the blind men near Jericho 91 

19 : i-io visit to Zacchseus 92 

11-28 parable of the Minae 92 

29-44 the public entry 95 

45-48 .cleansing of the temple 99 

20 : 1-8 Jesus' authority challenged loi 

9-19 three parables of warning 102 

20-40 three questions by Jewish rulers 105 

41-44 Jesus' unanswerable question 108 

45-47 woes against the scribes and Pharisees 109 

21 : 1-4 the widow's two mites m 

5-38 desolation of Jerusalem, and end of age iii 

22: 1,2 Jesus' further prediction; his crucifixion 

plotted 68, 71-73, 121 

3-6 Judas goes out and bargains for betrayal, 

68, 71, 72, 73, 125 

7-13 preparation for the Passover 73, 130 

14-18, 21-30... the Passover supper, the betrayer designated, 

70, 73, 82, 131 

19, 20, 31-38.. the Lord's Supper instituted 73, ^35 

39-46 the agony of Gethsemane 73, 136 

47-53 betrayal and arrest i39 



John 



1 : 24-27 John's witness before the priests and Levites, 27 

29-34 declares Jesus the Lamb of God 24, 27 

35, 36 Jesus' first disciples 33 

2 : i-ii Jesus' first miracle < 35 

II : 1-46 the raising of Lazarus 54 

55-57 Jews seek Jesus to take him 48, S4» 55, 93 

12:1-11 anointing of Jesus by Mary of Bethany, 

46, 48, 51, 52, 54, 55, 65, 73, 78, S7, 93 

12-19 the public entry 47, 48, 55, ^6, 73, 86, 95 

20-36 Greeks seeking Jesus 45, 73, 96 

37-50 the Jews' rejection of Jesus 45, 73, 98 

13 : 1-26 Jesus washing the disciples' feet, 49, 70-72, 78, 

87, 122 

27-30 Judas goes out and bargains for betrayal, 

69-73, 7^, 77, 79, 125 

31-38 the Son of man glorified 49, 72, 125 



148 INDEX OF SCRIPTURE REFERENCES 

John p^gh 

14: 1-31 Jesus' departure, promise of the Comforter, 

49, 72, 73, 76. 79, 80, 87, 125 

15 : 1-27 abiding union of Jesus and his disciples, 49, 

76, 80, 87, 128 

16 : 1-33 his persecution foretold 49, 76, 80, 87, 128 

17 : 1-26.. . , the intercessory prayer 49, 76, 80, 87, 129 

18 : I entering Gethsemane 79, 135 

2-1 1 betrayal and arrest 139 

19 : 26, 27 " Son, behold thy mother " 53 

Acts 

18 : 25 knowing only the baptism of John 27 

19 '• 1-7 baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus. .27, 39 

22 : 16 be baptized and wash away thy sins 38 

I Corinthians 

II ■: 23-26 the Lord's Supper instituted 135 

Titus 

3 ' 5 washing of regeneration 38 



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